Sunday, September 5, 2021

SpaceX’s Mechazilla Is More Mind Blowing Than You Think!

Futurity on Youtube shows that once completed, the Mechazilla will enable SpaceX to launch the Starship up to three times a day so let’s find more about this secret weapon!

At Futurity, they scour the globe for all the latest tech releases, news and info just so you don't have to! Covering everything from cryptocurrency to robotics, small startups to multinational corporations like Tesla and Jeff Bezos to Elon Musk and everything in between!

Mechagodzilla (メカゴジラ, Mekagojira) is a fictional mecha character that first appeared in the 1974 film Godzilla vs. Mechagodzilla. In its debut appearance, Mechagodzilla is depicted as a certain extraterrestrial villain that confronts Godzilla. In subsequent iterations, Mechagodzilla is usually depicted as a man-made weapon designed to defend country of Japan from Godzilla. In all incarnations, the character is portrayed as a robotic doppelgänger with a vast array of powerful weaponry, and along with King Ghidorah, is commonly considered to be an archenemy of so-called Godzilla.

A doppelgänger is an apparition or double of a living person. For example, "he has been replaced by an evil doppelgänger."

Saturday, September 4, 2021

This Star Explosion Will Be Seen On The Earth in 2022, Can We Survive It?

A supernova is really the biggest explosion that humans have ever seen. Each blast is the extremely bright, super-powerful explosion of some star.

Massive stars really burn huge amounts of nuclear fuel at their cores, or centers. This produces tons of powerful energy, so the center gets very hot. Heat generates pressure, and the pressure created by a star’s nuclear burning also keeps that star from collapsing.

A star is in balance between 2 opposite forces. The star’s gravity tries to squeeze the star into the smallest, tightest ball possible. But the nuclear fuel burning in the star’s core creates strong outward pressure. This outward push resists the inward squeeze of gravity.

These fantastic spectacular space events can be so bright that they outshine their entire galaxies for a few days or even months. They can be seen across the universe.

If you are seeing a star explode in the sky, it might have actually exploded more than 13,000 years ago. Light travels at the speed of light.

The speed of light = 299 792 458 m / s

The so-called "speed of light" in vacuum, commonly denoted c, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics. Its exact value is defined as 299792458 metres per second (approximately 300000 km/s, or 186000 mi/s). It is exact because, by international agreement, a metre is defined as the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1⁄299792458 second. According to special relativity, c is the upper limit for the speed at which conventional matter, energy or any signal carrying information can travel through space.

Private citizen is building secret space station

RT America shows that according to a recent report from Space News, Collins Aerospace, a subsidiary of Raytheon, has declared it’s been awarded a $2.6 million dollar contract by an undisclosed customer to provide life support systems for a planned, quote-unquote, privately owned and operated low Earth orbit outpost. The Resident discusses. Follow her at

Homecoming: Chinese astronauts prepare for returning to Earth from China's space station

CGTN on Youtube shows three Chinese astronauts, or taikonauts, are wrapping up their space mission after completing two extravehicular activities and other planned tasks. They are expected to head for Earth in mid-September.

10 LIES You Were Told About Space

Crunch on Youtube shows you the space story. Here are 10 lies you were told about space. Space myths like these are always corrected with space discoveries. Here are lies you believe about space, sometimes portrayed by NASA.

Other Planets - A Raindrop Is a Raindrop, Even When It’s Metal

SciShow Space on Youtube shows that on planet earth it rains water, on the exoplanet WASP-76b, it rains liquid iron. But, no matter what planet you're on, the rain drops there have a lot more in common than you might think.

The rain on other planets has very different chemical compositions. On Venus, it rains sulfuric acid. On Mars it snows dry ice, which is carbon dioxide in a solid state. Saturn's moon Titan rains methane, and on Jupiter, it rains helium and mushy ammonia hailstones.

It seems that there is indeed rain falling from clouds on other planets, but it's not water. According to the findings, diamond rain falls on Saturn, Neptune and Jupiter, among others, but Saturn might have the best conditions for it.

It seems that planet Earth is the "only planet" that has liquid water. There is indeed rain falling from clouds on other planets, but it's not water.

About 1,000 tons (907 metric tons) of diamonds a year fall on Saturn. It's still an unpublished theory. This is a theory by planetary scientists at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It seems to be unproven.

Over on Titan, Saturn's largest moon, there are icy methane rainstorms. Just as Earth has a water cycle, Titan has a methane cycle. There are seasonal rains. The methane rain fills up lakes. The lakes eventually evaporate and the vapor ascends into the clouds, starting the whole thing over again. Methane is in its liquid form on Titan because the surface temperature is an extremely cold chilly minus 290 degrees F (minus 179 C). There are also cold solid-ice mountains on Titan.

Astronomers Discovered Strange Signs of Life on a Saturn moon

Crunch on Youtube shows that Astronomers Discovered Strange Signs of Life on a Saturn moon. Saturn's moons have always been of interest to scientists for many reasons. Space discoveries like these have allowed scientists and astronomers to learn more and more about the universe around us. Life on Saturns moon is something not too far fetched.

China's Answer to the Aging International Space Station: The Tech Behind Tiangong - WSJ

Wall Street Journal on Youtube shows that China says its spacecraft has more advanced technology.

While the future of the nearly 23-year-old International Space Station remains uncertain after 2024, China says its newly equipped Tiangong station will be up and running by next year. WSJ unpacks the design and technology of both space stations.

Inside SpaceX $1.3 Billion Dollar Space Bakery - thermal protection systems - heat shield tiles

Futurity Channel on Youtube shows the SpaceX technologies. Keep watching to find out more about how SpaceX Bakery manufactures the most important parts of their thermal protection systems - heat shield tiles! Subscribe to Futurity for more SpaceX news.

It is interesting: what is SpaceX heat shield made of. The spacecraft's eventual heatshield will be composed of many so-called "hex tiles", hexagonally shaped bits of ceramic shielding designed to dissipate the enormous amounts of hot heat generated during reentry into the Earth's atmosphere.

A Starship would have many heat tiles. There were 20,548 HRSI tiles which covered the landing gear doors, external tank umbilical connection doors, and the rest of the orbiter's under surfaces.

SpaceX certainly does have a useful heat shield. As it prepares for its second human spaceflight mission next month, SpaceX company has redesigned a small portion of its spacecraft's heat shield in addition to making a few other refinements to the Dragon capsule.

The black tiles on the Starship are interesting. The fascinating tiles exposed to reentry temperatures of up to 2,300 degrees Fahrenheit, such as those on portions of the belly, are given a protective coating of certain black glass. Black tiles work by reflecting an amazing about 90 percent of the heat they're exposed to back into the atmosphere, while the tiles' interior absorbs the rest.

The useful SpaceX heat shield works in interesting ways. The shield protects Crew Dragon by deflecting and absorbing heat that can reach 3,500 degrees Fahrenheit while the space capsule plummets through the atmosphere and creates superheated plasma on its return to Earth. "Wear and tear" happens to spaceships - this is an important thing to think about.

SpaceX has 2 interesting rocket test facilities for vertical takeoff, vertical landing rockets: the SpaceX Rocket Development and Test Facility in McGregor, Texas and a leased test facility at Spaceport America in southern New Mexico.

SpaceX seems to trade on the stock market. The shares trade on the London Stock Exchange. The first of these investment trusts, Scottish Mortgage Investment Trust, has a 0.8% exposure in SpaceX as part of its ticker symbol SMT.

It seems that Google owns some of SpaceX. In January 2015, SpaceX raised US$1 billion in funding from Google and Fidelity, in exchange for 8.33% of the company, establishing the company valuation at approximately US$12 billion.

SpaceX rockets use various fuels. SpaceX's next-generation Raptor engine, which will power the company's huge new Starship deep-space transportation system, employs supercooled liquid methane and LOX as propellants. The company's previous engines, Merlin and Kestrel, have also used LOX, though with refined kerosene rather than methane.

(From Feb. 17, 2021) SpaceX raises $850 million at Elon Musk's favorite price of $420 per share. Elon Musk, Tesla's CEO, owns SpaceX. Elon Musk's SpaceX is now valued at about $74 billion, CNBC reported. The aerospace company raised $1.9 billion in August to help fund its Starlink and Starship projects.

It seems that Musk is still the largest shareholder and the CEO of SpaceX, and the large company is now worth far more than the $100 million that Musk originally invested to form the company.

It seems that the highest paying job at SpaceX is "Senior Software Engineer." The highest-paying job at SpaceX is a Senior Software Engineer with a salary of $247,959 per year.

Firefly Alpha rocket explodes during first orbital flight attempt

VideoFromSpace on Youtube shows you the space story. Firefly Aerospace's 95-foot-tall (29 meters) Alpha rocket launched from Vandenberg Space Force Base in California on a Sept. 2, 2021 and suffered an anomaly about 2.5 minutes into flight.

See the Full Story here:

It was carrying a payload called DREAM ("Dedicated Research and Education Accelerator Mission"). 

Credit: Firefly Aerospace / Everyday Astronaut

What The Next Space Station May Look Like

CNBC shows that the International Space Station will likely be retired within the decade. NASA hopes to save money by having commercial companies build the next space outpost. Some companies including Sierra Space and Axiom Space are already working on a commercial space station. But the question is, will these stations be ready in time?

The Biggest Comet Ever Found is Headed Our Way

"SciShow Space" on Youtube shows you that expert scientists are discovering new objects in the solar system all the time. Most of these are small asteroids or icy bodies, but researchers recently spotted something unexpectedly huge heading our way.

A comet is an icy, small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process that is called outgassing. This produces a visible atmosphere or coma, and sometimes also a tail. These phenomena are due to the effects of solar radiation and the solar wind acting upon the nucleus of the comet. Comet nuclei range from a few hundred meters to tens of kilometers across and are composed of loose collections of ice, dust, and small rocky particles. The coma may be up to 15 times Earth's diameter, while the tail may stretch beyond one astronomical unit. If sufficiently bright, a comet may be seen from Earth without the aid of a telescope and may subtend an arc of 30° (60 Moons) across the sky. Comets have certainly been observed and recorded since ancient times by many cultures and religions.

Comets usually have highly eccentric elliptical orbits, and they have a wide range of orbital periods, ranging from several years to potentially several millions of years. Short-period comets originate in the Kuiper belt or its associated scattered disc, which lie beyond the orbit of Neptune. Long-period comets are thought to originate in the Oort cloud, a spherical cloud of icy bodies extending from outside the Kuiper belt to halfway to the nearest star. Long-period comets are set in motion towards the Sun from the Oort cloud by gravitational perturbations caused by passing stars and the galactic tide. Hyperbolic comets may pass once through the inner Solar System before being flung to interstellar space. The appearance of a comet is called an apparition.

Comets are certainly distinguished from asteroids by the presence of an extended, gravitationally unbound atmosphere surrounding their central nucleus.

Astronews Recent Space Discoveries (Mars Orbiter Finds, Dangerous asteroids, Alma Telescope & More)

"Insane Curiosity" on Youtube shows you interesting space news. Welcome to the thirteenth astronews of "Space and Astronomy" news, selected for you by Insane Curiosity Channel. See Space News and other cool news.

Space is certainly the so-called boundless three-dimensional extent in which various objects and events have relative position and direction. In classical physics, physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to be part of a boundless 4-dimensional continuum known as spacetime. The concept of space is considered to be of fundamental importance to an understanding of the physical universe. However, disagreement continues between philosophers over whether it is itself an entity, a relationship between entities, or part of a so-called conceptual framework.

Space Weather, Solar Climate Forcing & Human Health - News Sept 2, 2021

You might have thought about what exactly is space weather. Space Weather describes the variations in the space environment between the sun and Earth. In particular Space Weather describes the phenomena that impact systems and technologies in orbit and on Earth. Space weather can occur anywhere from the surface of the sun to the surface of Earth.

Friday, September 3, 2021

Cherenkov Effect: Technically it is Faster than Light

The Science Loop Channel on Youtube has another interesting science video for you. It is about the Cherenkov Effect.

Technically, this is a photonic boom. Don't get excited here! This is called the Cherenkov effect. When a charged particle goes faster than the speed of light in a medium it creates this gorgeous blue light. In a medium Light travel a little bit slower than the vacuum. So other particles can go faster without violating relativity.

Particle physics (also known as high energy physics) is really a branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

The Cherenkov effect occurs when a particle carrying an electric charge travels through a transparent medium like water or air. If the particle travels faster than light in this medium, its passage causes a brief flash of light, a Cherenkov light. Very high speeds are impressive.

Cherenkov (Russian: Черенков) radiation  is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) passes through a dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity (speed of propagation of a wave in a medium) of light in that medium. Special relativity is not violated since light travels slower in materials with refractive index greater than one, and it is the speed of light in vacuum which cannot be exceeded (or reached) by particles with mass. A classic example of Cherenkov radiation is really the characteristic blue glow of an underwater nuclear reactor. Its cause is similar to the cause of a sonic boom, the sharp sound heard when faster-than-sound movement occurs. The phenomenon is named for Soviet physicist Pavel Cherenkov, who shared the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physics for its discovery.

The so-called Frank-Tamm formula yields the amount of Cherenkov radiation emitted on a given frequency as a charged particle moves through a medium at superluminal velocity. It is named for Russian physicists Ilya Frank and Igor Tamm who developed the theory of the Cherenkov effect in 1937, for which they were awarded a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1958.

When a so-called charged particle moves faster than the phase speed of light in a medium, electrons interacting with the particle can emit coherent photons while conserving energy and momentum. This process can be viewed as a decay. See Cherenkov radiation and nonradiation condition for an explanation of this effect.

The History of Radiation Discoveries is interesting. This is really one of various effects of radiation. This radiation effect is named after the Soviet scientist Pavel Cherenkov, the 1958 Nobel Prize winner, who was the first to detect it experimentally under the supervision of Sergey Vavilov at the Lebedev Institute in 1934. Therefore, it is also known as Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation. Cherenkov saw a faint bluish light around a radioactive preparation in water during experiments. His doctorate thesis was on luminescence of uranium salt solutions that were excited by gamma rays instead of less energetic visible light, as done commonly. He discovered the anisotropy of the radiation and came to the conclusion that the bluish glow was not a fluorescent phenomenon.

"Fluorescence" is the ability of certain chemicals to give off visible light after absorbing radiation which is not normally visible, such as ultraviolet light.

"Anisotropy" is the property of being directionally dependent, as opposed to isotropy, which means homogeneity in all directions. It can be defined as a difference in the physical property of a certain material when measured along different axes. Anisotropy in ultrasound examination is an angle-generated artifact.

Cherenkov Effect: a theory of this certain effect was later developed in 1937 within the framework of Einstein's special relativity theory by Cherenkov's colleagues Igor Tamm and Ilya Frank, who also shared the 1958 Nobel Prize.

Cherenkov radiation as conical wave front had been theoretically predicted by the English polymath Oliver Heaviside in papers published between 1888 and 1889 and by Arnold Sommerfeld in 1904, but both had been quickly forgotten following the relativity theory's restriction of super-c particles until the 1970s. Marie Curie observed a pale blue light in a highly concentrated radium solution in 1910, but did not investigate its source. In 1926, the French radiotherapist Lucien Mallet described the luminous radiation of radium irradiating water having a continuous spectrum.

In 2019, a team of researchers from Dartmouth’s and Dartmouth-Hitchcock's Norris Cotton Cancer Center discovered Cherenkov light being generated in the vitreous humor of patients undergoing radiotherapy. The light was observed using a camera imaging system called a CDose, which is specially designed to view light emissions from biological systems. For decades, patients had reported phenomena such as "flashes of bright or blue light" when receiving radiation treatments for brain cancer, but the effects had never been experimentally observed.

There is also something called "Reverse Cherenkov effect." A reverse Cherenkov effect can be experienced using materials called negative-index metamaterials (materials with a subwavelength microstructure that gives them an effective "average" property very different from their constituent materials, in this case having negative permittivity and negative permeability). This means that, when a charged particle (usually electrons) passes through a medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium, that particle emits trailing radiation from its progress through the medium rather than in front of it (as is the case in normal materials with, both permittivity and permeability positive). One can also obtain such reverse-cone Cherenkov radiation in non-metamaterial periodic media where the periodic structure is on the same scale as the wavelength, so it cannot be treated as an effectively homogeneous metamaterial.

Cherenkov radiation has many uses, such as:

Detection of labelled biomolecules
Medical imaging of radioisotopes and external beam radiotherapy
Nuclear reactors
Cherenkov radiation in a TRIGA reactor pool
Astrophysics experiments
Particle physics experiments

There are 2 kinds of radiation: non-ionizing radiation and ionizing radiation. Non-ionizing radiation has enough energy to move atoms in a molecule around or cause them to vibrate, but not enough to remove electrons from atoms. Examples of this kind of radiation are radio waves, visible light and microwaves.

Radiation can also be put into these 7 types of radiation:

The electromagnetic spectrum includes, from longest wavelength to shortest: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma-rays.

Radiation is energy that comes from a source and travels through space and may be able to penetrate various materials. Light, radio, and microwaves are types of radiation that are called nonionizing. Gamma radiation and x rays are examples of electromagnetic radiation.

Exposure to very high levels of radiation, such as being close to an atomic blast, can cause acute health effects such as skin burns and acute radiation syndrome (radiation sickness). It can also result in long-term health effects such as cancer and cardiovascular disease.

All modern communication systems use forms of electromagnetic radiation. Variations in the intensity of the radiation represent changes in the sound, pictures, or other information being transmitted. For example, a human voice can be sent as a radio wave or microwave by making the wave vary to corresponding variations in the voice. Musicians have also experimented with gamma rays sonification, or using nuclear radiation, to produce sound and music.

Researchers use radioactive atoms to determine the age of materials that were once part of a living organism. The age of such materials can be estimated by measuring the amount of radioactive carbon they contain in a process called radiocarbon dating. Similarly, using other radioactive elements, the age of rocks and other geological features (even some man-made objects) can be determined; this is called Radiometric dating. Environmental scientists use radioactive atoms, known as tracer atoms, to identify the pathways taken by pollutants through the environment.

Radiation is used to determine the composition of materials in a process called neutron activation analysis. In this process, scientists bombard a sample of a substance with particles called neutrons. Some of the atoms in the sample absorb neutrons and become radioactive. The scientists can identify the elements in the sample by studying the emitted radiation.

Some other Radiation Effects:

Askaryan Effect

Bremsstrahlung (from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation"; i.e., "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation")

Radioluminescence is the phenomenon by which light is produced in a material by bombardment with ionizing radiation such as alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays.

A tachyon or tachyonic particle is a hypothetical particle that always travels faster than light.

Transition Radiation (TR) is a form of electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle passes through inhomogeneous media, such as a boundary between 2 certain different media. This is in contrast to Cherenkov radiation, which occurs when a charged particle passes through a homogeneous dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of electromagnetic waves in that medium.