Friday, February 12, 2021

The New Space Race - China, Russia, and the US


The Weichert Report is really pretty interesting about the Space Explorations of China, Russia and the USA. Take a look at how Brandon J. Weichert joined The Epoch Times' Cross Roads w/ Joshua Phillips to discuss the future of space and the new exciting space race that's going on between China and the United States, but also with Russia.

If you want, you could purchase your copy of WINNING SPACE: HOW AMERICA REMAINS A SUPERPOWER (Republic Book Publishers) and definitely follow Brandon on various social media. You could also check out the popular blog: www.weichertreport.com.

For now, it seems that only 3 nations (Soviet Union/Russia, USA, China) have launched their own crewed spacecraft, with the Soviets/Russians and the American programs providing rides to other nations' astronauts. 27 "first flights" occurred on important Soviet or Russian flights while the United States carried 13.

Certain countries have gone to the so-called moon. The United States, the Soviet Union and China are the three nations which have successfully landed their spacecraft on the moon. And, the US is the only country to have ever put people on the moon. Russia (the USSR), Japan, China, the European Space Agency (ESA), and India have all made visits to the moon via probes.

242 individuals from 19 countries have visited the International Space Station. 242 individuals from 19 countries have visited the International Space Station.

A total of 18 people have unfortunately lost their lives either while in space or in preparation for a space mission, in four separate incidents. Given the serious risks involved in space flight, this number is surprisingly low. The two worst disasters both involved NASA's space shuttle.

People can't actually breathe in outer space. However, inside the International Space Station (ISS), the American astronauts and Russian cosmonauts do breathe air almost identical to the stuff we usually successfully breathe here on planet Earth - same pressure and about 80 per cent nitrogen and 20 per cent oxygen. The space workers really get it by 'splitting' H2O with electricity.

Some might think that NASA won the space race. By landing on the moon, the United States "won" the space race that had begun with Sputnik's launch in 1957. In 1975, the joint Apollo-Soyuz mission sent three U.S. astronauts into outer space aboard an Apollo spacecraft that docked in orbit with a Soviet-made Soyuz vehicle.

NASA's earliest objective was to launch a manned vehicle into Earth's orbit as soon as possible. It would be the Soviets, however, who would successfully win the race to put a man in space. In April 1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man to enter Earth's orbit, in a single-pilot important spacecraft called Vostok I.

Sunday, January 31, 2021

Astronomers Just Saw the Biggest Boom Since the Big Bang


BRIGHT SIDE on Youtube discusses the Big Bang Theory. There are more recent discoveries concerning this fantastic space phenomenon.

There was an epic huge space explosion that scientists discovered in February 2020. Its size and power are certainly enormous even by cosmic standards. It would take 2.6 billion years to get to where this explosion occurred in space. Amazingly, this burst certainly lasted 100 million years. That’s from today’s modern world to back all the way back to dinosaur times.

It seems that a black hole set off this space boom of epic proportions. This monster swallowed so much substance that it choked and shot out a bunch of plasma beams. They cut through space and formed a cosmic wasteland all around the site! It was thought to be the largest biggest explosion in the universe. But sooner or later, it seems, every record gets broken! See the most incredible, awe-inspiring, and unbelievable facts about space. You will be educated and entertained.

The history of the "The Big Bang theory" is interesting. The Big Bang theory is a cosmological model of the observable universe from the earliest known certain periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. The model describes how the universe expanded from an initial state of extremely high density and high hot temperature, and offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of observed phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, and large-scale structure.

Crucially, the theory is compatible with Hubble-Lemaître law - the observation that the farther away galaxies are, the faster they are moving away from Earth. Extrapolating this cosmic expansion backwards in time using the known laws of physics, the theory describes a high density state preceded by a singularity in which space and time lose meaning. There is no evidence of any phenomena prior to the singularity. Detailed measurements of the certain expansion rate of the universe place the Big Bang at around 13.8 billion years ago, which is thus considered the age of the universe.

After its initial expansion, the universe cooled sufficiently to allow the formation of subatomic particles, and later atoms. Giant clouds of these primordial elements (mostly hydrogen, with some helium and lithium) later coalesced through gravity, forming early stars and galaxies, the descendants of which are visible today. Besides these primordial building materials, astronomers observe the gravitational effects of an unknown dark matter surrounding galaxies. Most of the gravitational potential in the universe seems to be in this form, and the Big Bang theory and various observations indicate that this gravitational potential is not made of baryonic matter, such as normal atoms. Measurements of the redshifts of supernovae indicate that the certain expansion of the universe is accelerating, an observation attributed to dark energy's existence.

What is "Baryonic Matter"? In astronomy and cosmology, baryonic dark matter is dark matter composed of baryons. Only a small proportion of the dark matter in the universe is likely to be baryonic.

In particle physics, a baryon is a type of composite subatomic particle which contains an odd number of valence quarks. Baryons belong to the hadron family of particles; hadrons are composed of quarks. Baryons are also classified as fermions because they have half-integer spin.

Saturday, January 23, 2021

15 Unsettling Sky Phenomena Hard To Explain


You will definitely enjoy looking through these - 15 Unsettling Sky Phenomena Hard To Explain. You could see the most bizarre things in the high clouds and sky that you have never seen before. They are something very out of the ordinary. You can't even describe these things. See stories of witnesses of these 15 Unsettling Sky Phenomena Hard to Explain.

The sky (also sometimes called celestial dome) is everything that lies above the surface of the Earth, including the atmosphere and outer space.

In the field of astronomy, the sky is also called the celestial sphere. This is an abstract sphere (concentric to the Earth) on which the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars appear to be drifting. The celestial sphere is conventionally divided into certain designated areas called constellations.

The daytime sky usually appears blue because air molecules scatter shorter wavelengths of sunlight more than longer ones (redder light). The night sky appears to be a mostly dark surface or region with stars.

Some of the common natural phenomena seen in the sky are clouds, rainbows, and aurorae. Lightning and precipitation are also often visible in the sky.

Some people might be wondering: what is a so-called black hole? A black hole is certainly a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing (no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light) can really escape from it. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a certain black hole.

How Small a Black Hole can Get? Quantum Mechanical Black Hole


Here's another new fascinating science video (from Science Loop on Youtube): How Small a Black Hole can Get? Quantum Mechanical Black Hole.

Take a look at amazing explanations of the so-called Smallest Black Hole that can possible. These kinds of Black Holes are very tiny. You could even hold them in your hand.

The black holes are the natural consequences of Einstein's general theory of Relativity. In general, we thought that black holes are so huge and so massive because they are formed when the core of the larger star collapses into its own gravity, but technically they can be formed when enough amount of matter is packed into a very small place.

These black holes are extremely tiny and very light - these are Quantum Mechanical Black holes or mini black holes or micro black holes.

These fascinating black holes can be found at The Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and highest-energy particle collider and the largest machine in the world. It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) between 1998 and 2008 in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and hundreds of universities and laboratories. The collaboration included more than 100 countries. The machine lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference and as deep as 175 metres (574 ft) beneath the France-Switzerland border near Geneva.

First collisions were achieved in 2010 at an energy of 3.5 teraelectronvolts (TeV) per beam, about 4 times the previous world record. After certain upgrades, it reached 6.5 TeV per beam (13 TeV total collision energy, the present world record). At the end of 2018, it entered a 2-year shutdown period for further upgrades.

The amazing LHC primarily collides proton beams, but it can also use beams of heavy ions: lead-lead collisions and proton-lead collisions are typically done for one month per year. The aim of the LHC's detectors is to allow physicists to test the predictions of different theories of particle physics, certainly including measuring the properties of the Higgs boson and searching for the interesting large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetric theories, as well as other unsolved questions of physics.

What is supersymmetry? In particle physics, supersymmetry (SUSY) is really a conjectured relationship between two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin. A type of spacetime symmetry, supersymmetry is a possible candidate for undiscovered particle physics, and seen by certain physicists as an elegant solution to many current problems in particle physics if confirmed correct, which could resolve various areas where current theories are believed to be incomplete. A supersymmetrical extension to the Standard Model could resolve major hierarchy problems within gauge theory, by guaranteeing that quadratic divergences of all orders will cancel out in perturbation theory.

A black hole is a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing (no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light) can escape from it. The interesting theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a so-called black hole.


Above: A Black Hole


Above: The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is amazing. Go here to get more information about it: https://home.cern/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider

Drake equation - Alien Life - Science Loop


Science Loop on Youtube talks about the visualization of the great famous Drake equation. This equation calculates the number of alien civilizations in our fantastic Milky way galaxy. "Are we alone in the whole universe" - this question is asked from ancient times. Humans are still wondering about this.

The Drake equation is a probabilistic argument used to estimate the number of active, communicative extraterrestrial civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy.

The equation was written in 1961 by Frank Drake, not for purposes of quantifying the number of civilizations, but as a way to stimulate scientific dialogue at the first scientific meeting on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). The fascinating equation summarizes the main concepts which smart scientists must contemplate when considering the question of other radio-communicative life. It is more properly thought of as an approximation than as a serious attempt to determine a precise number.

There is some criticism of the equation. Most criticism related to the Drake equation focuses not on the equation itself, but on the fact that the estimated values for several of its factors are highly conjectural, the combined multiplicative effect being that the uncertainty associated with any derived certain value is so large that the equation cannot be used to draw really firm conclusions.

Many scientists are searching for microbial life forms on other planets and moon in our solar system (Mars, Venus, Europa, Saturn). However, scientists in SETI (Search for extraterrestrial intelligence) are searching for extraterrestrial intelligent life forms.

There seems to be no sure "no evidence" of those alien beings. You might think that there is no way we could know any of these things right now.

The Fermi paradox, named after Italian-American physicist Enrico Fermi, is the apparent contradiction between the lack of evidence for extraterrestrial civilizations and various high estimates for their probability.

Below: The Drake Equation: See more information here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drake_equation




Vega Rocket Failure: 2nd time in 16 months, $373M payload lost (16 Nov 2020)


Read the Full Stories Here:

November 17, 2020 - Human error blamed for Vega launch failure:
https://spacenews.com/human-error-blamed-for-vega-launch-failure/

November 18, 2020 - Failed Launch Mission Costs France, Spain Satellites Worth $373 Million
https://www.moroccoworldnews.com/2020/11/326365/failed-launch-mission-costs-france-spain-satellites-worth-373-million/

A Vega rocket lifted off Nov. 16, but its payload of two satellites were lost when the rocket's fourth stage malfunctioned.

Arianespace executives said Nov. 17 that the failure of a Vega launch the previous day was caused when the rocket’s upper stage tumbled out of control due to incorrectly installed cables in a control system.

In a call with reporters, Roland Lagier, chief technical officer of Arianespace, said the first three stages of the Vega rocket performed normally after liftoff from Kourou, French Guiana, at 8:52 p.m. Eastern Nov. 16. The Avum upper stage then separated and ignited its engine.

The launch mission of two French and Spanish satellites on Tuesday, November 17, has failed, leading to losses estimated at $373 million.

Arianespace, the company operating the launch rocket, announced the mission’s failure soon after it deviated from its trajectory.

What is a Vega Rocket?

Vega (Italian: Vettore Europeo di Generazione Avanzata, or French: Vecteur européen de génération avancée, or English: European Vector of Advanced Generation meaning "Advanced generation European carrier rocket"), is an expendable launch system in use by Arianespace jointly developed by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and the European Space Agency (ESA). Development began in 1998 and the first launch took place from the Centre Spatial Guyanais on 13 February 2012.

The rocket is designed to launch small payloads - 300 to 2500 kg satellites for scientific and Earth observation missions to polar and low Earth orbits. The reference Vega mission is a polar orbit bringing a spacecraft of 1500 kg to an altitude of 700 km.

The rocket, named after Vega, the brightest star in the constellation Lyra, is a single-body launcher (no strap-on boosters) with three solid rocket stages: the P80 first stage, the Zefiro 23 second stage, and the Zefiro 9 third stage. The upper module is a liquid rocket called AVUM. The improved version of the P80 stage, the P120C, will be used as the side boosters of the Ariane 6. Italy is the leading contributor to the Vega program (65%), followed by France (13%). Other participants include Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Sweden.

What is Arianespace?

Arianespace SA is a multinational company founded in 1980 as the world's first commercial launch service provider. It undertakes the operation and marketing of the Ariane programme. The company offers a number of different launch vehicles: the heavy-lift Ariane 5 for dual launches to geostationary transfer orbit, the Soyuz-2 as a medium-lift alternative, and the solid-fueled Vega for lighter payloads.

As of May 2017, Arianespace had launched more than 550 satellites in 254 launches over 36 years (236 Ariane missions minus the first 8 flights handled by CNES, 17 Soyuz-2 missions and 9 Vega missions). The first commercial flight managed by the new entity was Spacenet F1 launched on 23 May 1984. Arianespace uses the Guiana Space Center in French Guiana as its main launch site. Through shareholding in Starsem, it can also offer commercial Soyuz launches from the Baikonur spaceport in Kazakhstan. It has its headquarters in Évry-Courcouronnes, Essonne, France.

France must have said, "sacré bleu" - a French expression of surprise, exasperation, or dismay.

"Sacré bleu, la fusée a échoué!" (the rocket failed!)

10 INSANE Space Events Happening in 2021


Factnomenal on Youtube shows you the interesting stuff: 10 space events happening in 2021! NASA space discoveries 2020 and outer space exploration is reaching new heights. With 2021 right around the corner, there are many universe events that are going to happen. You have to be interested about fascinating great space facts and facts about the universe.

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the USA federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and space research.

NASA was established in 1958, succeeding the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most USA space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the fascinating fantastic Orion spacecraft, the Space Launch System, and Commercial Crew vehicles. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program, which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for uncrewed NASA launches.

NASA science is certainly focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System; advancing heliophysics through the efforts of the Science Mission Directorate's Heliophysics Research Program; exploring bodies throughout the Solar System with advanced robotic spacecraft such as New Horizons; and really researching astrophysics topics, such as the Big Bang, through the Great Observatories and associated programs.

The Apollo 11 space mission is one of the most talked about. Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon. Commander Neil Armstrong and lunar module pilot Buzz Aldrin formed the American crew that landed the Apollo Lunar Module Eagle on July 20, 1969.

Kennedy space center is interesting for visitors.

Space x (SpaceX) is Space Exploration Technologies Corp. is an American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California. It was founded in 2002 by Elon Musk with the goal of reducing space transportation costs to enable the colonization of Mars.

The International Space Station is a modular space station in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project between five participating space agencies: NASA, Roscosmos, JAXA, ESA, and CSA. The ownership and use of the space station is established by intergovernmental treaties and agreements.

There are many satellites in space. In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object that has been intentionally placed into certain orbit. These objects are called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth's Moon.

On 4 October 1957 the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Since then, about 8,900 satellites from more than 40 countries have been launched. According to a 2018 estimate, some 5,000 remain in orbit. Of those about 1,900 were operational, while the rest have lived out their useful lives and become space debris. Approximately 63% of operational satellites are in low Earth orbit, 6% are in medium-Earth orbit (at 20,000 km), 29% are in geostationary orbit (at 36,000 km) and the remaining 2% are in elliptic orbit. In terms of countries with the most satellites the USA significantly leads the way with 859 satellites, China is second with 250, and Russia third with 146. These are then followed by India (118), Japan (72) and the UK (52). A few large space stations have been certainly launched in parts and assembled in orbit. Over a dozen space probes have been placed into orbit around other bodies and become artificial satellites of the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, a few asteroids, a comet and the Sun.