Saturday, April 10, 2021

Elon Musk Neuralink Monkey Brain Plays Pong Game explained - Science Loop


Science Loop on Youtube has interesting explanations. Neuralink just implanted a chip in a monkey's brain and demonstrated it playing video games with its mind. The science behind that could be a game-changer. Pager, a nine year old Macaque, plays MindPong with his Neuralink.

The Neuralink Website is at https://neuralink.com

Neuralink Corporation is a neurotechnology company founded by Elon Musk and others, developing implantable brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). The company's headquarters is in San Francisco. The company was started in 2016 and was first publicly reported in March 2017.

Since its founding, the company has hired several high-profile neuroscientists from various universities. By July 2019, it had received $158 million in funding (of which $100 million was from Musk) and was employing a staff of 90 employees. At that time, Neuralink announced that it was working on a "sewing machine-like" device capable of implanting very thin (4 to 6 μm in width) threads into the brain, and demonstrated a system that read information from a lab rat via 1,500 electrodes, they had anticipated starting experiments with humans in 2020; but have since moved that projection to 2021.

This innovative technology has certainly been criticized by several neuroscientists and publications, including the MIT Technology Review.

Elon Musk founded Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) - an American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.

The monkey "Pager" has learned to control a computer with his brain activity. At first, the monkey uses a joystick to interact with the computer for a "tasty banana smoothie, delivered through a straw." It seems that Pager has 2 Neuralink devices implanted in his brain. The devices, which Musk calls a "Fitbit for your skull," were certainly revealed at a press briefing in August 2020.

The Neuralink devices in the monkey's brain are reading his brain activity. When the team disconnect the joystick, Pager keeps playing the game - and the amazing brain-implant allows him to play the game "MindPong."

So-called "MindPong is an initial demonstration of the potential capabilities of the N1 Link. In the future, the device could be able to achieve even greater things.

Sunday, April 4, 2021

Bizarre Space Discoveries That Left Astronomers Worried


Factnomenal shows excellent Bizarre Space Discoveries That Left Astronomers Worried. These amazing space discoveries will make you wonder what is really out there in outer space. See interesting space discoveries, space facts, and interesting facts about space in general.

Outer space is certainly the expanse that exists beyond Earth and between celestial bodies. Outer space is not completely empty (it is a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles, predominantly a plasma of hydrogen and helium). It also contains electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, neutrinos, dust, and cosmic rays. The baseline temperature of outer space, as set by the background radiation from the Big Bang, is 2.7 kelvins (−270.45 °C; −454.81 °F).

Scientific observations suggest that the majority of the mass-energy in the observable universe is dark energy, a type of vacuum energy that seems to be poorly understood. Intergalactic space takes up most of the volume of the universe, but even galaxies and star systems consist almost entirely of empty space, it seems.

Aliens Are Real, Says Harvard Astronomer


VICE News shows that when an object called ʻOumuamua' was detected flying through our solar system in 2017, scientists were baffled by its strange behavior. Many said it was just a bizarre space rock, but Harvard astrophysicist Avi Loeb believes it was most likely a relic of an alien civilization. And he thinks you should believe that too.

In this episode of The Space Show, Motherboard reporter Becky Ferreira speaks with Professor Avi Loeb, chair of Harvard's astronomy department and author of the new book "Extraterrestrial."

Extraterrestrial life is hypothetical life which may occur outside Earth and which did not originate on Earth. Such life might range from simple prokaryotes (or comparable life forms) to intelligent beings and even sapient beings, possibly bringing forth civilizations which might be far more really advanced than humanity. The Drake equation speculates about the existence of sapient life elsewhere in the so-called universe. The science of extraterrestrial life in all its forms is certainly known as astrobiology.

Definition of word: sapient:

adjective

1. FORMAL
wise, or attempting to appear wise.
"members of the female quarter were more sapient but no less savage than the others"

2. relating to the human species ( Homo sapiens ).
"our sapient ancestors of 40,000 years ago"

noun

a human of the species Homo sapiens.

Since the mid-20th century, active ongoing research has taken place to look for signs of possible extraterrestrial life.

NASA's $10 Billion Time Machine - James Webb Space Telescope


Take a look at the James Webb Space Telescope. It will peer back in time billions of years to unlock some of the greatest secrets in the universe. Telescope scientists Heidi Hammel and Matt Mountain share their insights into the coolest space telescope ever.

So long as the weather, temperature, and other certain conditions cooperate, the nominal launch date for James Webb is October 31, 2021. NASA's James Webb Space Telescope looks good in its full configuration.

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST or "Webb") is a joint NASA-ESA-CSA space telescope that is planned to succeed the Hubble Space Telescope as NASA's flagship astrophysics mission. The JWST will provide improved infrared resolution and sensitivity over Hubble, and will enable a broad range of interesting investigations across the fields of astronomy and cosmology, including observing some of the most distant events and objects in the universe, such as the formation of the certain first galaxies.

The JWST is being developed by NASA, the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency.

Development first began in 1996 for a launch that was initially planned for 2007 and a 500-million-dollar budget.

However, the project has had numerous delays and cost overruns. The project underwent a major redesign in 2005. The cost of developing the telescope is actually something over $10 billion.

NASA's Ingenuity helicopter set to make history on Mars


CTV News shows that a solar-powered helicopter is about to embark on a historic flight on Mars with a nod to the Wright Brothers.

The Name of the helicopter is Ingenuity. The Main Job is to be a technology demonstration to test the first powered flight on Mars. The helicopter rode to Mars attached to the belly of the Perseverance rover. It landed on Feb. 18, 2021 to Jezero Crater, Mars.

It is sure taking flight on another planet world. Once the Perseverance rover reaches a suitable "helipad" location, it will release Ingenuity to perform a series of test flights over a 30-Martian-day experimental window beginning in early April.

For the first flight, the helicopter will take off a few feet from the ground, hover in the air for about 20 to 30 seconds, and land. That will be the first powered flight in the extremely thin atmosphere of Mars. Additional experimental flights will be added of incrementally farther distance and greater altitude. After the helicopter completes its technology demonstration, Perseverance will continue its important scientific mission.

This is the first helicopter ever designed to fly successfully in the thin Martian air. The helicopter demonstrates miniaturized flying technology. Parts are small: onboard computers, electronics and other parts. The helicopter is light enough to take off.

"Ingenuity helicopter" will use solar power to charge its batteries and rely on internal heaters to maintain operational temperatures during the so-called cold Martian nights.

Helicopter Features:

- Weighs 4 pounds (1.8 kg)
- Solar-powered and recharges on its own
- Wireless communication system
- Counter-rotating blades spin about 2,400 rpm
- Equipped with computers, navigation sensors, and 2 cameras (one color and one black-and-white)
- Height: about 19 inches (0.49 meters)
- Rotor system span: about 4 feet (1.2 meters)

Keep in mind, the average gravitational acceleration on Mars is 3.72076 ms−2 (about 38% of that of Earth) and it varies.

The gravity on Mars' surface seems to be much lower than it is here on Earth - 62% lower to be precise. At just 0.376 of the Earth standard (or 0.376 g), a person who weighs 100 kg on Earth would weigh only 38 kg on Mars.

Friday, April 2, 2021

Why is Russia's giant new space telescope underwater?


AFP News Agency shows that Russian scientists launch one of the world's biggest underwater space telescopes that will study the mysteries of the universe while floating in the so-called pristine waters of Lake Baikal.

Lake Baikal (Russian: озеро Байкал) is a rift lake located in southern Siberia, Russia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.

Lake Baikal is the largest freshwater lake by volume in the world, containing 22 to 23% of the world's fresh surface water. With 23,615.39 km3 (5,670 cu mi) of fresh water, it contains more water than all of the North American Great Lakes combined. With a maximum depth of 1,642 m (5,387 ft), Baikal is the world's deepest lake. It is among the world's clearest lakes and is the world's oldest lake, at 25-30 million years old. It is certainly the 7th-largest lake in the world by surface area.

Russian scientists have deployed a giant telescope into the frigid depths of Lake Baikal in southern Siberia to search for the tiniest known particles in the universe. The telescope, Baikal-GVD, is designed to search for neutrinos, which are nearly massless subatomic particles with no electrical charge. Neutrinos seem to be everywhere, but they interact so weakly with the forces around them that they are very hard to detect.

A neutrino is a certain subatomic particle that is very similar to an electron, but has no electrical charge and a very small mass, which might even be "zero." Neutrinos are one of the most abundant particles in the universe. Because they have very little interaction with matter, however, they seem to be incredibly difficult to detect.

Scientists are looking under Lake Baikal (1,700 meters deep). This lake is certainly the deepest lake on Earth. Neutrino detectors are typically built underground to shield them from so-called cosmic rays and other sources of interference.

The Baikal Gigaton Volume Detector (Baikal-GVD) deep underwater neutrino telescope being lowered beneath Lake Baikal in southern Siberia.

The scientists deployed the neutrino detector through the ice about 2.5 miles (4 kilometers) from the lakeshore in the southern part of the lake on March 13, lowering modules made of string, glass spheres and stainless steel up to 4,300 feet (1,310 m) into the water.

This telescope is unusual. Most of the telescopes used by astronomers are known as ground-based, this means that they are located here on Earth at some of the best observing sites in the world. When a telescope is placed on the ground it has to look up through the Earth's atmosphere to see into space, and the atmosphere can really blur images.

A telescope is usually an optical instrument using lenses, curved mirrors, or a combination of both to observe distant objects, or various devices used to observe distant objects by their emission, absorption, or reflection of electromagnetic radiation. The first known practical telescopes were refracting telescopes invented in the Netherlands at the beginning of the 17th century, by using glass lenses. They were used for both terrestrial applications and astronomy.

Russia and China want to build a space station on the moon


WION shows that the "space race" for space dominance is heating up. Russia and China certainly want to build a lunar space station. NASA wants another space station to orbit the moon. India has its own plans for a space station. Space might have borders in the future.

A so-called lunar outpost is a concept of a permanent or semi-permanent presence of humans on the Moon (a moonbase). Certain space companies want an increase in their budgets in order to make another crewed mission to the Moon. A sustained presence on the Moon is also possible in the future.

The concept of establishing a long-term human presence on the Moon can be traced back to the late 1950s. Plans are out there such as constructing an underground Air Force Base on the Moon, other military bases on the Moon, designs of lunar outposts and lunar rovers for long-duration treks across the Moon's surface.

The Artemis program is from 2017 to Present. The Artemis program is a planned crewed spaceflight program carried out predominately by NASA, USA commercial spaceflight companies, and international partners such as the European Space Agency (ESA), JAXA, and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) with the goal of landing "the first woman and the next man" on the Moon, specifically at the lunar south pole region by 2024. NASA sees Artemis as the next step towards the long-term goal of establishing a sustainable presence on the Moon, laying the foundation for private companies to build a lunar economy, and eventually successfuly sending humans to Mars. One primary target is Shackleton crater. In 2028 NASA plans on launching the Lunar Surface Asset, a small habitat to the surface of the Moon on either an SLS Block 1B or through an Artemis Support Mission on a commercial launcher. This would be certainly the first so-called crewed lunar base.

"Colonization of the Moon" could happen in the future. This is a concept employed by some proposals of establishing permanent human settlement or robotic presence on the Moon (the closest astronomical body to Earth) and the Earth's only so-called natural satellite. Other terms can also be used, such as: "space settlement" or "space habitation."

The Moon is highly likely to be the first permanent human space colony or settlement, because it is very close to the Earth.

Certain water exists on the Moon - "Lunar water." This so-called water was first discovered by India's ISRO Chandrayaan-1 mission in 2008. Diffuse water molecules can persist at the Moon's sunlit surface, as successfully discovered by NASA's SOFIA observatory in 2020. Gradually water vapor is decomposed by sunlight, leaving hydrogen and oxygen lost to outer space. Scientists have found water ice in the cold, permanently shadowed craters at the Moon's poles. It seems that water molecules are also in the extremely thin lunar atmosphere.

The chemistry of water is interesting. Water is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a solvent). Water is vital for all known forms of life, even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, connected by covalent bonds. Two hydrogen atoms are attached to one oxygen atom at an angle of 104.45°.

Water (H2O), and the chemically related hydroxyl group (-OH), exist in forms chemically bound as hydrates and hydroxides to lunar minerals (rather than free water), and evidence strongly suggests that this is the case in low concentrations as for much of the Moon's surface. In fact, of surface matter, adsorbed water is calculated to exist at trace concentrations of 10 to 1000 parts per million. Inconclusive evidence of free water ice at the lunar poles had accumulated during the second half of the 20th century from a variety of observations suggesting the presence of bound hydrogen.

Keep in mind, if research or evidence is inconclusive, it has not really proved anything. But, it can suggest something.

On 18 August 1976, the Soviet Luna 24 probe landed at Mare Crisium, took samples from the depths of 118, 143, and 184 cm of the lunar regolith, and then took them to Earth. In February 1978, it was published that laboratory analysis of these samples shown they contained 0.1% water by mass. Spectral measurements shown minima near 3, 5, and 6 µm, distinctive valence-vibration bands for water molecules, with intensities 2 or 3 times larger than the noise level.

On 24 September 2009, it was reported that the NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectrometer onboard India's ISRO Chandrayaan-1 probe had detected absorption features near 2.8-3.0 μm on the surface of the Moon. On 14 November 2008, India made the Moon Impact Probe onboard Chandrayaan-1 orbiter crash into Shackleton crater and confirmed the presence of water ice. For silicate bodies, such features are typically attributed to hydroxyl- and/or water-bearing materials. In August 2018, NASA confirmed that M3 showed water ice is present on the surface at the Moon poles. Water was confirmed to be on the sunlit surface of the Moon by NASA on October 26, 2020.

The search for the presence of lunar water continues. Lunar missions continue to be made to the Moon. The water's usefulness could possibly help in long-term lunar habitation.