Thursday, April 22, 2021

Scientists Have Found Out That a 9th Planet Exists, but Something Strange Is Happening


TheSimplySpace on Youtube shows that the technical advances of recent years have not stopped at the field of astronomy. Gigantic discoveries such as the first photo of a black hole show that there are still numerous unexplored objects and phenomena in our universe. According to extrapolations by astrophysicists, there are probably as many as 100 billion galaxies in space and an equally large number of planets in the Milky Way alone, whose existence we have not yet learned of.

Some science out there is pseudoscience. The word pseudoscience is derived from the Greek root pseudo meaning false and the English word science, from the Latin word scientia, meaning "knowledge". Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that claim to be both scientific and factual but are incompatible with the scientific method.

Some people may believe that a 9th planet exists in our solar system. Our solar system consists of our star, the Sun, and everything bound to it by gravity - the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, dwarf planets such as Pluto, dozens of moons and millions of asteroids, comets and meteoroids.

Planet 9 (Nine) is a hypothetical planet in the outer region of the Solar System. Its gravitational effects could explain the unusual clustering of orbits for a group of extreme so-called trans-Neptunian objects (ETNOs), bodies beyond Neptune that orbit the Sun at distances averaging more than 250 times that of the Earth. These ETNOs tend to make their closest approaches to the Sun in one sector, and their orbits are similarly tilted. These alignments suggest that an undiscovered planet may be shepherding the orbits of the most distant known Solar System objects. Nonetheless, some astronomers indeed question the idea that the hypothetical planet exists and instead assert that the clustering of the ETNOs orbits is due to observing biases, resulting from the difficulty of discovering and tracking these objects during much of the year.

Based on earlier considerations, this hypothetical super-Earth-sized planet would have had a predicted mass of 5 to 10 times that of the Earth, and an elongated orbit 400 to 800 times as far from the Sun as the Earth. Konstantin Batygin and Michael E. Brown suggested that Planet Nine could be the core of a giant planet that was ejected from its original orbit by Jupiter during the genesis of the Solar System. Others proposed that the planet was captured from another star, was once a rogue planet, or that it formed on a distant orbit and was pulled into an eccentric orbit by a passing star.

The section of the universe, which humans can see, resembles a tiny puzzle piece, which is put together by researchers for centuries piece by piece. Not even the solar system known to us has been completely explored, as can be seen from the discovery of the possible dwarf planet Farout only two years ago or the discussion about a gas in the atmosphere of Venus that could indicate life. For several years, researchers have also speculated about the possibility of another planet in our solar system. Since Pluto's planetary status was revoked, eight have been counted among them. Newest research results from California let astronomy enthusiasts now again strongly listen: There is actually a mathematical proof for the ninth planet in our solar system!

In August 2006, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) downgraded the status of Pluto to that of "dwarf planet." This means that from now on only the rocky worlds of the inner Solar System and the gas giants of the outer system will be designated as planets.

5 Theories About What Lies Outside The Observable Universe


TheSimplySpace on Youtube shows that about 13.75 billion years ago, our universe as we know it was created.

Keep in mind, the Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model of the observable universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. The model describes how the universe expanded from an initial state of high density and temperature.

Shortly after the universe was created, the primordial light began to shoot through the cosmos and spread throughout the entire early universe. At this time the universe itself also expanded. However, the inflation of the universe slowed down after the first initial eruption, but since then the rate of expansion has been steadily increasing due to the influence of increasing dark energy. In essence, the cosmos has been growing at an ever-increasing rate since its creation.

Physicists and mathematicians certainly have been studying the nature of the universe for hundreds of years, trying to solve the mysteries it contains. But there are some scientists who go one step further into the unknown by thinking about what lies beyond the boundaries of our universe. Is it possible that there is something else beyond the existence of our universe? Other universes, worlds whose existence we can only guess at? That could well be the case. These are the 5 theories in the video about what this "something" could be and what clues there are for the various theories.

10 Space Photos That Will Give You Nightmares


Factnomenal on Youtube shows that outer space images can be scary. Space discoveries by the Hubble space telescope are made often. NASA focuses on finding new things within the Universe and sometimes they run into pretty creepy things. Enjoy this space video showing off creepy space images as part of the space discoveries 2020 series!

10 Planet Discoveries That Scare Astronomers - Space Discoveries 2020


Factnomenal on Youtube shows the strangest planets ever discovered by NASA! These latest and recent space discoveries 2020 reveal some of the strangest planets ever discovered. There are some planets like earth and some so different. The universe contains so many planets that it is impossible to count them all. These amazing space discoveries are for sure something you have never seen before.

The order of the planets in the solar system, starting nearest the sun and working outward is the following: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and then the possible Planet Nine.

Planet Nine is certainly a hypothetical planet in the outer region of the Solar System. Its gravitational effects could explain the unusual clustering of orbits for a group of extreme so-called trans-Neptunian objects, bodies beyond Neptune that orbit the Sun at distances averaging more than 250 times that of the Earth.

10 Recent Space Discoveries That Scientists Can't Explain


TheSimplySpace on Youtube shows that the universe has endless expanses. It is full of surprises and ever new events. This month, the news of new sightings, mysterious apparitions and fascinating events have once again come thick and fast. See the most recent and amazing discoveries of the scientists.

Something Strange is Surrounding Our Solar System - 10 Insane Space Discoveries


Factnomenal shows that something strange is surrounding our solar system. Here are 10 space discoveries that may shock! Astronomers from all over the world have gathered these discoveries from using space telescopes like the Hubble Space Telescope as well as the Kepler Space Telescope. With the new Mars Perseverance rover roaming the Martian surface, we will soon have a lot more amazing discoveries!

20 Most Incredible Recent Space Discoveries To Blow Your Mind


Unexplained Mysteries on Youtube shows 20 most incredible recent space discoveries to blow your mind. Take a look at these 20 most incredible recent space discoveries to blow your mind.

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, known by the acronym NASA, was established in 1958. NASA is responsible for the United States’ civilian space programme as well as aeronautical discoveries and space research. High-profile examples of NASA’s work include the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space centre and the Space Shuttle programme. NASA is committed to the ongoing investigation of planets and other features of our Universe, and regularly reports on new discoveries.

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is certainly an independent agency of the USA federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and space research.

NASA was established in 1958, succeeding the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science.

25 Scary But True Space Facts


Factnomenal on Youtube shows 25 SCARY space facts that may keep you up at night. Some of these interesting facts are amazing yet terrifying at the same time. As the days go one, we learn more about our universe, one outer space discovery at a time!

Deep Space Discoveries Indicate Spectacular Objects Exist Far Beyond our Solar System


DTTV - Science Answers on Youtube shows that with the giant powerful telescopes​ now being made available to astronomers​, we are at the verge of discovering previously unfathomable details about exoplanets​. The Kepler mission showed us that exoplanets​ were not rare, and there are millions or trillions out there, waiting for our discovery. The first-ever exoplanet discovered was born at least a 100 times farther away from its Sun than where it is now.

15 Most Mysterious Space Discoveries


Top Fives on Youtube shows that Outer Space is a mysterious place! They are taking a look at some of the most mysterious discoveries in outer space out there.

Wednesday, April 21, 2021

Black Hole or Cosmic Light Switch?


ThunderboltsProject on Youtube shows that a new scientific paper describes an unprecedented and so-called "mind boggling" event around a so-called black hole - an event so rapid, energetic and completely unexpected to astronomers, it challenges the very bedrock of black hole theory. 

A team of scientists studying an active galactic nucleus observed the brightness of a so-called black hole corona drop by a factor of 10,000 in less than one year.  A co-author of a new paper on the discovery stated, "We expect that luminosity changes this big should vary on timescales of many thousands to millions of years. But in this object, we saw it change by 10,000 over a year, and it even changed by a factor of 100 in eight hours, which is just totally unheard of and really mind-boggling."

Scientists Are Finally Unveiling Secret Space Mysteries


TheSimplySpace on Youtube shows the infinite expanses of space hold many mysteries that fire the imagination of man. They range from inexplicable events to accounts of people who have been in space. Join them in the world of secret space mysteries in the video.

Extracts First Oxygen from Mars: NASA’s Perseverance Mars Rover


iGadgetPro on Youtube shows that Oxygen on Mars was generated by Perseverance Rover’s MOXIE instrument (first results).

On April 21, 2021, NASA confirmed Perseverance Rover’s MOXIE generated Oxygen on Mars for the first time. Test took place April 20, the 60th Martian day of Perseverance Rover. First MOXIE experiment allowed Perseverance to generate about 6 grams of Oxygen. It is enough for human to breathe for about 10 minutes while accomplishing normal tasks.

Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment (MOXIE) accomplished the task to generate Oxygen O2 from Mars’s carbon dioxide CO2 atmosphere. After an hour of operation the total oxygen produced was about 5.4 grams, enough to keep an astronaut healthy for about 10 minutes of normal activity. Mars’ atmosphere is 96% carbon dioxide. MOXIE works by separating oxygen atoms from carbon dioxide molecules, which are made up of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms. A waste product, carbon monoxide, is emitted into the Martian atmosphere. MOXIE’s shield is made of gold.

The New Crisis in Cosmology


PBS Space Time has good news and bad news. Bad news first: 2 years ago they reported on the Crisis in Cosmology. Since then, it’s only gotten worse. And actually, the good news is also that the crisis in cosmology has actually gotten worse, which means they may be onto something!

Mars Geology Gets Even "Weirder"


ThunderboltsProject shows that in recent months, according to a number of scientific reports, the dusty winds and sand dune formations on the planet Mars have grown even more mysteries. In this episode, we explore why Electric Universe geology may hold the key to resolving both the mysterious processes in Mars' past, and those happening today.

Mars is the 4th planet from the Sun and the 2nd-smallest planet in the Solar System, being larger than only Mercury. In English, Mars carries the name of the Roman god of war and is often referred to as the "Red Planet". The latter refers to the effect of the iron oxide prevalent on Mars's surface, which gives it a reddish appearance distinctive among the astronomical bodies visible to the naked eye. Mars is certainly a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, with surface features reminiscent of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys, deserts and polar ice caps of Earth.

SpaceX Falcon Heavy beats out ULA Vulcan for NASA Moon rover launch


ENGINEERING TODAY on Youtube shows that SpaceX Falcon Heavy beats out ULA Vulcan for NASA Moon rover launch - Blue Origin human space flight.

It seems that SpaceX is winning the launch of NASA’s VIPER rover.

SpaceX will now launch NASA’s Moon rover to the lunar soil in 2023. This way SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy rocket has effectively beaten out United Launch Alliance’s Vulcan Centaur launch vehicle from their way to get that launch contract. According to the contract, SpaceX will now send a NASA rover and commercial lander to the Moon. Astrobotic, a company which won NASA’s lander contract in CLPS program, had earlier announced that they contracted with ULA to launch their first small so-called "Peregrine" lander and numerous NASA payloads to the Moon in 2021. Astrobotic then had selected ULA’s Vulcan Centaur as their launch vehicle for the "Peregrine" lander.

April 12 - sixty years since Yuri Gagarin went into space


BBC News shows that for the Soviet Union, Yuri Gagarin’s single orbit of the Earth was a huge achievement. There will be celebrations across Russia to mark the anniversary.

On April 12, 1961, aboard the spacecraft Vostok 1, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin becomes the first human being to travel into space. During the flight, the 27-year-old test pilot and industrial technician also became the first man to orbit the planet, a feat accomplished by his space capsule in 89 minutes.

Billionaire is Paying Elon Musk to Send Him to Space


VICE News shows that Jared Isaacman is the billionaire founder of Shift4 Payments, and recently got SpaceX to sell him a personal mission to outer space. This first all-civilian mission is scheduled for late 2021, and will see Isaacman and 3 other crew members launch on a Crew Dragon for a tour of the outer space areas.

NASA calls SpaceX 'best value' for next manned lunar mission


CNBC Television shows how CNBC's Morgan Brennan reports on the new partnership between NASA and SpaceX as the corporate space race heats up.

Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) is certainly an American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California. It was founded in 2002 by Elon Musk with the goal of reducing space transportation costs to enable the colonization of so-called planet Mars. SpaceX manufactures the Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy launch vehicles, several rocket engines, Dragon cargo and crew spacecraft and Starlink satellites.

It seems that recently NASA chose only SpaceX for its return to the moon even though the agency's stated plans called for 2 commercial partners.

SpaceX had been competing against Blue Origin and Dynetics for a pair of contracts for NASA's Artemis (moon flight) program. But, NASA on Friday announced SpaceX would get an exclusive $2.9 billion contract.

Pentagon confirms leaked UFO video is real


It seems that the Pentagon has confirmed that recently-leaked UFO video is real.

The Pentagon is the headquarters building of the USA Department of Defense. As a symbol of the USA military, the phrase The Pentagon is also often used as a metonym or synecdoche for the Department of Defense and its leadership.

Scientists find “strong evidence” for new mystery sub-atomic force of nature


BBC News shows that an international team of scientists, working on a project in the United States, say they have discovered strong evidence for the existence of a new force of nature. 

They say some sub-atomic particles - called muons - don't behave in a way predicted by current theories of physics. 

The British funders of the research say that scientists are "on the precipice of a new era of physics." 

Huw Edwards presents BBC News at Ten reporting by science correspondent Pallab Ghosh.

The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass. It is classified as a lepton.

This Might Be a Brand-New Kind of Star


SciShow Space on Youtube shows that astronomers have theorized about an invisible star made up of theoretic particles in the past, but did we recently detect the gravitational waves of two of them colliding? Plus, extraterrestrial rocks from a decades-old mission keep yielding new discoveries!

Launch Of NASA's SpaceX To International Space Station


NBC News shows live coverage of the SpaceX Crew-1 launch as 4 astronauts head to the International Space Station. The Crew Dragon will take off from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla.

The NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) is America’s civil space program and the global leader in space exploration. The agency has a diverse workforce of just under 18,000 civil servants, and works with many more USA contractors, academia, and international and commercial partners to explore, discover, and expand knowledge for the benefit of humanity. With an annual budget of $23.2 billion in Fiscal Year 2021, which is less than 0.5% of the overall U.S. federal budget, NASA supports more than 312,000 jobs across the United States, generating more than $64.3 billion in total economic output (Fiscal Year 2019).

Australia’s first Homemade spacecraft


7NEWS Australia shows that as Australia steps up into the international space race, a Sydney start-up is building the nation's largest homemade spacecraft.

The Biggest Space News Stories of 2020


NOVA PBS Official shows that the coronavirus pandemic may have been the biggest science news story of 2020, but it wasn't the only story. Discover three of the greatest space developments of the year and what 2021 may bring.

Space junk: Even small fragments have the potential to cause significant damage


DW News shows that planet Earth is slowly being wrapped in a cloud of debris. Experts estimate that nearly 130 million pieces of scrap metal are currently orbiting our planet. Most are only a few millimeters in size, but there are also tanks, rocket stages and old satellites. Because of their high speed, even small fragments have the potential to cause dangerous significant damage.

Tuesday, April 20, 2021

Mars Helicopter Ingenuity's first Flight video (lift off and landing) - Science Loop


Science Loop on Youtube shows that Mars Ingenuity helicopter has made flight history!

NASA’s Ingenuity Mars Helicopter Succeeds in Historic First Flight

Monday, NASA’s Ingenuity Mars Helicopter became the first aircraft in history to make a powered, controlled flight on another planet. The Ingenuity team at the agency’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California confirmed the flight succeeded after receiving data from the helicopter via NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover at 6:46 a.m. EDT (3:46 a.m. PDT).

***Due to lack of time and information the quality and information of the video is not good enough.

There is also first image from Ingenuity's onboard camera during fly in Mars's atmosphere. NASA's Ingenuity Mars Helicopter took this shot while hovering over the Martian surface on April 19, 2021.

NASA is calling the flight a "Wright Brothers moment" on the Red Planet Mars!

Mars Ingenuity helicopter is also Autonomous. It takes some time to communicate from Earth to Mars. Because of this time delay, we can not use joystick. That is why scientists made it Autonomous. Cool! Isn't it?

NASA's experimental helicopter Ingenuity certainly rose into the thin air above the dusty red surface of Mars planet on Monday, achieving the first powered flight by an aircraft on another planet.

The triumph was hailed as a "Wright brothers moment." The small mini 4-pound (1.8-kilogram) helicopter certainly succeeded.

The first flight was short (just 39 seconds) - but it accomplished a major milestone.

The $85 million USA helicopter demo was considered high risk yet high reward.

To accomplish the fascinating Mars flight, the helicopter's twin, counter-rotating rotor blades needed to spin at 2,500 revolutions per minute - 5 times faster than on Earth.

The helicopter has an excellent solar panel for recharging the batteries, crucial for its survival during the -90 C Martian nights.

Saturday, April 10, 2021

Elon Musk Neuralink Monkey Brain Plays Pong Game explained - Science Loop


Science Loop on Youtube has interesting explanations. Neuralink just implanted a chip in a monkey's brain and demonstrated it playing video games with its mind. The science behind that could be a game-changer. Pager, a nine year old Macaque, plays MindPong with his Neuralink.

The Neuralink Website is at https://neuralink.com

Neuralink Corporation is a neurotechnology company founded by Elon Musk and others, developing implantable brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). The company's headquarters is in San Francisco. The company was started in 2016 and was first publicly reported in March 2017.

Since its founding, the company has hired several high-profile neuroscientists from various universities. By July 2019, it had received $158 million in funding (of which $100 million was from Musk) and was employing a staff of 90 employees. At that time, Neuralink announced that it was working on a "sewing machine-like" device capable of implanting very thin (4 to 6 μm in width) threads into the brain, and demonstrated a system that read information from a lab rat via 1,500 electrodes, they had anticipated starting experiments with humans in 2020; but have since moved that projection to 2021.

This innovative technology has certainly been criticized by several neuroscientists and publications, including the MIT Technology Review.

Elon Musk founded Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) - an American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.

The monkey "Pager" has learned to control a computer with his brain activity. At first, the monkey uses a joystick to interact with the computer for a "tasty banana smoothie, delivered through a straw." It seems that Pager has 2 Neuralink devices implanted in his brain. The devices, which Musk calls a "Fitbit for your skull," were certainly revealed at a press briefing in August 2020.

The Neuralink devices in the monkey's brain are reading his brain activity. When the team disconnect the joystick, Pager keeps playing the game - and the amazing brain-implant allows him to play the game "MindPong."

So-called "MindPong is an initial demonstration of the potential capabilities of the N1 Link. In the future, the device could be able to achieve even greater things.

Sunday, April 4, 2021

Bizarre Space Discoveries That Left Astronomers Worried


Factnomenal shows excellent Bizarre Space Discoveries That Left Astronomers Worried. These amazing space discoveries will make you wonder what is really out there in outer space. See interesting space discoveries, space facts, and interesting facts about space in general.

Outer space is certainly the expanse that exists beyond Earth and between celestial bodies. Outer space is not completely empty (it is a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles, predominantly a plasma of hydrogen and helium). It also contains electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, neutrinos, dust, and cosmic rays. The baseline temperature of outer space, as set by the background radiation from the Big Bang, is 2.7 kelvins (−270.45 °C; −454.81 °F).

Scientific observations suggest that the majority of the mass-energy in the observable universe is dark energy, a type of vacuum energy that seems to be poorly understood. Intergalactic space takes up most of the volume of the universe, but even galaxies and star systems consist almost entirely of empty space, it seems.

Aliens Are Real, Says Harvard Astronomer


VICE News shows that when an object called ʻOumuamua' was detected flying through our solar system in 2017, scientists were baffled by its strange behavior. Many said it was just a bizarre space rock, but Harvard astrophysicist Avi Loeb believes it was most likely a relic of an alien civilization. And he thinks you should believe that too.

In this episode of The Space Show, Motherboard reporter Becky Ferreira speaks with Professor Avi Loeb, chair of Harvard's astronomy department and author of the new book "Extraterrestrial."

Extraterrestrial life is hypothetical life which may occur outside Earth and which did not originate on Earth. Such life might range from simple prokaryotes (or comparable life forms) to intelligent beings and even sapient beings, possibly bringing forth civilizations which might be far more really advanced than humanity. The Drake equation speculates about the existence of sapient life elsewhere in the so-called universe. The science of extraterrestrial life in all its forms is certainly known as astrobiology.

Definition of word: sapient:

adjective

1. FORMAL
wise, or attempting to appear wise.
"members of the female quarter were more sapient but no less savage than the others"

2. relating to the human species ( Homo sapiens ).
"our sapient ancestors of 40,000 years ago"

noun

a human of the species Homo sapiens.

Since the mid-20th century, active ongoing research has taken place to look for signs of possible extraterrestrial life.

NASA's $10 Billion Time Machine - James Webb Space Telescope


Take a look at the James Webb Space Telescope. It will peer back in time billions of years to unlock some of the greatest secrets in the universe. Telescope scientists Heidi Hammel and Matt Mountain share their insights into the coolest space telescope ever.

So long as the weather, temperature, and other certain conditions cooperate, the nominal launch date for James Webb is October 31, 2021. NASA's James Webb Space Telescope looks good in its full configuration.

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST or "Webb") is a joint NASA-ESA-CSA space telescope that is planned to succeed the Hubble Space Telescope as NASA's flagship astrophysics mission. The JWST will provide improved infrared resolution and sensitivity over Hubble, and will enable a broad range of interesting investigations across the fields of astronomy and cosmology, including observing some of the most distant events and objects in the universe, such as the formation of the certain first galaxies.

The JWST is being developed by NASA, the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency.

Development first began in 1996 for a launch that was initially planned for 2007 and a 500-million-dollar budget.

However, the project has had numerous delays and cost overruns. The project underwent a major redesign in 2005. The cost of developing the telescope is actually something over $10 billion.

NASA's Ingenuity helicopter set to make history on Mars


CTV News shows that a solar-powered helicopter is about to embark on a historic flight on Mars with a nod to the Wright Brothers.

The Name of the helicopter is Ingenuity. The Main Job is to be a technology demonstration to test the first powered flight on Mars. The helicopter rode to Mars attached to the belly of the Perseverance rover. It landed on Feb. 18, 2021 to Jezero Crater, Mars.

It is sure taking flight on another planet world. Once the Perseverance rover reaches a suitable "helipad" location, it will release Ingenuity to perform a series of test flights over a 30-Martian-day experimental window beginning in early April.

For the first flight, the helicopter will take off a few feet from the ground, hover in the air for about 20 to 30 seconds, and land. That will be the first powered flight in the extremely thin atmosphere of Mars. Additional experimental flights will be added of incrementally farther distance and greater altitude. After the helicopter completes its technology demonstration, Perseverance will continue its important scientific mission.

This is the first helicopter ever designed to fly successfully in the thin Martian air. The helicopter demonstrates miniaturized flying technology. Parts are small: onboard computers, electronics and other parts. The helicopter is light enough to take off.

"Ingenuity helicopter" will use solar power to charge its batteries and rely on internal heaters to maintain operational temperatures during the so-called cold Martian nights.

Helicopter Features:

- Weighs 4 pounds (1.8 kg)
- Solar-powered and recharges on its own
- Wireless communication system
- Counter-rotating blades spin about 2,400 rpm
- Equipped with computers, navigation sensors, and 2 cameras (one color and one black-and-white)
- Height: about 19 inches (0.49 meters)
- Rotor system span: about 4 feet (1.2 meters)

Keep in mind, the average gravitational acceleration on Mars is 3.72076 ms−2 (about 38% of that of Earth) and it varies.

The gravity on Mars' surface seems to be much lower than it is here on Earth - 62% lower to be precise. At just 0.376 of the Earth standard (or 0.376 g), a person who weighs 100 kg on Earth would weigh only 38 kg on Mars.

Friday, April 2, 2021

Why is Russia's giant new space telescope underwater?


AFP News Agency shows that Russian scientists launch one of the world's biggest underwater space telescopes that will study the mysteries of the universe while floating in the so-called pristine waters of Lake Baikal.

Lake Baikal (Russian: озеро Байкал) is a rift lake located in southern Siberia, Russia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.

Lake Baikal is the largest freshwater lake by volume in the world, containing 22 to 23% of the world's fresh surface water. With 23,615.39 km3 (5,670 cu mi) of fresh water, it contains more water than all of the North American Great Lakes combined. With a maximum depth of 1,642 m (5,387 ft), Baikal is the world's deepest lake. It is among the world's clearest lakes and is the world's oldest lake, at 25-30 million years old. It is certainly the 7th-largest lake in the world by surface area.

Russian scientists have deployed a giant telescope into the frigid depths of Lake Baikal in southern Siberia to search for the tiniest known particles in the universe. The telescope, Baikal-GVD, is designed to search for neutrinos, which are nearly massless subatomic particles with no electrical charge. Neutrinos seem to be everywhere, but they interact so weakly with the forces around them that they are very hard to detect.

A neutrino is a certain subatomic particle that is very similar to an electron, but has no electrical charge and a very small mass, which might even be "zero." Neutrinos are one of the most abundant particles in the universe. Because they have very little interaction with matter, however, they seem to be incredibly difficult to detect.

Scientists are looking under Lake Baikal (1,700 meters deep). This lake is certainly the deepest lake on Earth. Neutrino detectors are typically built underground to shield them from so-called cosmic rays and other sources of interference.

The Baikal Gigaton Volume Detector (Baikal-GVD) deep underwater neutrino telescope being lowered beneath Lake Baikal in southern Siberia.

The scientists deployed the neutrino detector through the ice about 2.5 miles (4 kilometers) from the lakeshore in the southern part of the lake on March 13, lowering modules made of string, glass spheres and stainless steel up to 4,300 feet (1,310 m) into the water.

This telescope is unusual. Most of the telescopes used by astronomers are known as ground-based, this means that they are located here on Earth at some of the best observing sites in the world. When a telescope is placed on the ground it has to look up through the Earth's atmosphere to see into space, and the atmosphere can really blur images.

A telescope is usually an optical instrument using lenses, curved mirrors, or a combination of both to observe distant objects, or various devices used to observe distant objects by their emission, absorption, or reflection of electromagnetic radiation. The first known practical telescopes were refracting telescopes invented in the Netherlands at the beginning of the 17th century, by using glass lenses. They were used for both terrestrial applications and astronomy.

Russia and China want to build a space station on the moon


WION shows that the "space race" for space dominance is heating up. Russia and China certainly want to build a lunar space station. NASA wants another space station to orbit the moon. India has its own plans for a space station. Space might have borders in the future.

A so-called lunar outpost is a concept of a permanent or semi-permanent presence of humans on the Moon (a moonbase). Certain space companies want an increase in their budgets in order to make another crewed mission to the Moon. A sustained presence on the Moon is also possible in the future.

The concept of establishing a long-term human presence on the Moon can be traced back to the late 1950s. Plans are out there such as constructing an underground Air Force Base on the Moon, other military bases on the Moon, designs of lunar outposts and lunar rovers for long-duration treks across the Moon's surface.

The Artemis program is from 2017 to Present. The Artemis program is a planned crewed spaceflight program carried out predominately by NASA, USA commercial spaceflight companies, and international partners such as the European Space Agency (ESA), JAXA, and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) with the goal of landing "the first woman and the next man" on the Moon, specifically at the lunar south pole region by 2024. NASA sees Artemis as the next step towards the long-term goal of establishing a sustainable presence on the Moon, laying the foundation for private companies to build a lunar economy, and eventually successfuly sending humans to Mars. One primary target is Shackleton crater. In 2028 NASA plans on launching the Lunar Surface Asset, a small habitat to the surface of the Moon on either an SLS Block 1B or through an Artemis Support Mission on a commercial launcher. This would be certainly the first so-called crewed lunar base.

"Colonization of the Moon" could happen in the future. This is a concept employed by some proposals of establishing permanent human settlement or robotic presence on the Moon (the closest astronomical body to Earth) and the Earth's only so-called natural satellite. Other terms can also be used, such as: "space settlement" or "space habitation."

The Moon is highly likely to be the first permanent human space colony or settlement, because it is very close to the Earth.

Certain water exists on the Moon - "Lunar water." This so-called water was first discovered by India's ISRO Chandrayaan-1 mission in 2008. Diffuse water molecules can persist at the Moon's sunlit surface, as successfully discovered by NASA's SOFIA observatory in 2020. Gradually water vapor is decomposed by sunlight, leaving hydrogen and oxygen lost to outer space. Scientists have found water ice in the cold, permanently shadowed craters at the Moon's poles. It seems that water molecules are also in the extremely thin lunar atmosphere.

The chemistry of water is interesting. Water is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a solvent). Water is vital for all known forms of life, even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, connected by covalent bonds. Two hydrogen atoms are attached to one oxygen atom at an angle of 104.45°.

Water (H2O), and the chemically related hydroxyl group (-OH), exist in forms chemically bound as hydrates and hydroxides to lunar minerals (rather than free water), and evidence strongly suggests that this is the case in low concentrations as for much of the Moon's surface. In fact, of surface matter, adsorbed water is calculated to exist at trace concentrations of 10 to 1000 parts per million. Inconclusive evidence of free water ice at the lunar poles had accumulated during the second half of the 20th century from a variety of observations suggesting the presence of bound hydrogen.

Keep in mind, if research or evidence is inconclusive, it has not really proved anything. But, it can suggest something.

On 18 August 1976, the Soviet Luna 24 probe landed at Mare Crisium, took samples from the depths of 118, 143, and 184 cm of the lunar regolith, and then took them to Earth. In February 1978, it was published that laboratory analysis of these samples shown they contained 0.1% water by mass. Spectral measurements shown minima near 3, 5, and 6 µm, distinctive valence-vibration bands for water molecules, with intensities 2 or 3 times larger than the noise level.

On 24 September 2009, it was reported that the NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectrometer onboard India's ISRO Chandrayaan-1 probe had detected absorption features near 2.8-3.0 μm on the surface of the Moon. On 14 November 2008, India made the Moon Impact Probe onboard Chandrayaan-1 orbiter crash into Shackleton crater and confirmed the presence of water ice. For silicate bodies, such features are typically attributed to hydroxyl- and/or water-bearing materials. In August 2018, NASA confirmed that M3 showed water ice is present on the surface at the Moon poles. Water was confirmed to be on the sunlit surface of the Moon by NASA on October 26, 2020.

The search for the presence of lunar water continues. Lunar missions continue to be made to the Moon. The water's usefulness could possibly help in long-term lunar habitation.

Friday, March 26, 2021

Story of our Universe in 1 minute - Science Loop



The time-lapse of the entire universe is pretty interesting. "How did it begin" is an interesting question. "How vast is our universe" is also puzzling. The Story of our Great Universe is here in 1 minute. The visuals are pretty exciting.

See the extreme Timelapse of the evolution of Universe. The video compressed the Entire Timeline Of universe (13.8 B Years ) in a Minute scale. From the Big-Bang to Present. Primordial clouds to Our Sun. Supernova Explosion and formation of the Black-hole. Collision to exciting Formation. And the  Rise of life. The visual images put together are pretty exciting in : Time-Lapse of the Entire Universe. This video is: Extream Animation, VFX, SFX. Use Headphones for a really better Experience.

How did the universe start? There are theories out there. The Big Bang theory is a cosmological model of the observable universe from the so-called earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. The model describes how the universe expanded from an initial state of high density and temperature, and offers a comprehensive interesting deep explanation for a broad range of observed phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, and large-scale structure.

Crucially, the theory is compatible with Hubble-Lemaître law - the certain observation that the farther away galaxies are, the faster they are moving away from Earth. Extrapolating this cosmic expansion backwards in time using the known laws of physics, the theory describes a high density state preceded by a singularity in which space and time lose meaning. There is certainly no evidence of any phenomena prior to the singularity. Detailed measurements of the so-called expansion rate of the universe place the Big Bang at around 13.8 billion years ago, which is thus considered the age of the universe.

Saturday, March 6, 2021

First Space Hurricane Discovered : Science Loop


This is pretty interesting - the first-ever (first ever that was observed by humans) 'space hurricane' was detected over the North Pole. For the first time, astronomers have detected a powerful, 600-mile-wide (1,000 kilometers) hurricane of plasma in Earth's upper atmosphere - a phenomenon they're calling a "space hurricane." The space hurricane certainly raged for nearly 8 hours on Aug. 20, 2014. This fascinating phenomenon behaved similarly to the wind-based hurricanes we find on Earth, but this space version rained electrons instead of water. It seems that any planet with plasma and a magnetic field could have these 'violent' space storms, researchers said.

The hurricane seems to be formed from a tangled mess of magnetic field lines and fast-flying solar wind. The hurricane was invisible to the naked eye. However, 4 weather satellites that passed over the North Pole detected a formation not unlike a typical terrestrial hurricane. The intense space hurricane was shaped like a funnel with a quiet "eye" at the center. It was surrounded by several counterclockwise-spinning spiral arms of plasma (ionized gas found all over the solar system, including in Earth's atmosphere).

Usually, the "eye of the storm" is a region of mostly calm weather at the center of tropical cyclones. The eye of a storm is a roughly circular area, typically 30-65 kilometers in diameter. It is surrounded by the eyewall, a ring of towering massive thunderstorms where the most severe weather and highest winds certainly occur.

Until this important space discovery, it was uncertain if space plasma hurricanes existed. The existence was proved with this striking observation. These space hurricanes must be created by unusually large and fast transfer of solar wind energy and charged particles into the Earth's upper atmosphere.

Plasma and magnetic fields in the atmosphere of planets certainly exist throughout the universe, so the findings suggest space hurricanes should be a widespread phenomena.

This science phenomenon was discovered by a team of researchers from Shandong University in China. They had observed the storm over the Arctic region on 20 August 2014, before identifying its nature in 2021. The research team also consisted of scientists from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Norway. The team observed the space hurricane for 8 hours, before it gradually broke down. The storm was observed during a certain period of low solar and geomagnetic activity.

Friday, February 12, 2021

The New Space Race - China, Russia, and the US


The Weichert Report is really pretty interesting about the Space Explorations of China, Russia and the USA. Take a look at how Brandon J. Weichert joined The Epoch Times' Cross Roads w/ Joshua Phillips to discuss the future of space and the new exciting space race that's going on between China and the United States, but also with Russia.

If you want, you could purchase your copy of WINNING SPACE: HOW AMERICA REMAINS A SUPERPOWER (Republic Book Publishers) and definitely follow Brandon on various social media. You could also check out the popular blog: www.weichertreport.com.

For now, it seems that only 3 nations (Soviet Union/Russia, USA, China) have launched their own crewed spacecraft, with the Soviets/Russians and the American programs providing rides to other nations' astronauts. 27 "first flights" occurred on important Soviet or Russian flights while the United States carried 13.

Certain countries have gone to the so-called moon. The United States, the Soviet Union and China are the three nations which have successfully landed their spacecraft on the moon. And, the US is the only country to have ever put people on the moon. Russia (the USSR), Japan, China, the European Space Agency (ESA), and India have all made visits to the moon via probes.

242 individuals from 19 countries have visited the International Space Station. 242 individuals from 19 countries have visited the International Space Station.

A total of 18 people have unfortunately lost their lives either while in space or in preparation for a space mission, in four separate incidents. Given the serious risks involved in space flight, this number is surprisingly low. The two worst disasters both involved NASA's space shuttle.

People can't actually breathe in outer space. However, inside the International Space Station (ISS), the American astronauts and Russian cosmonauts do breathe air almost identical to the stuff we usually successfully breathe here on planet Earth - same pressure and about 80 per cent nitrogen and 20 per cent oxygen. The space workers really get it by 'splitting' H2O with electricity.

Some might think that NASA won the space race. By landing on the moon, the United States "won" the space race that had begun with Sputnik's launch in 1957. In 1975, the joint Apollo-Soyuz mission sent three U.S. astronauts into outer space aboard an Apollo spacecraft that docked in orbit with a Soviet-made Soyuz vehicle.

NASA's earliest objective was to launch a manned vehicle into Earth's orbit as soon as possible. It would be the Soviets, however, who would successfully win the race to put a man in space. In April 1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man to enter Earth's orbit, in a single-pilot important spacecraft called Vostok I.

Sunday, January 31, 2021

Astronomers Just Saw the Biggest Boom Since the Big Bang


BRIGHT SIDE on Youtube discusses the Big Bang Theory. There are more recent discoveries concerning this fantastic space phenomenon.

There was an epic huge space explosion that scientists discovered in February 2020. Its size and power are certainly enormous even by cosmic standards. It would take 2.6 billion years to get to where this explosion occurred in space. Amazingly, this burst certainly lasted 100 million years. That’s from today’s modern world to back all the way back to dinosaur times.

It seems that a black hole set off this space boom of epic proportions. This monster swallowed so much substance that it choked and shot out a bunch of plasma beams. They cut through space and formed a cosmic wasteland all around the site! It was thought to be the largest biggest explosion in the universe. But sooner or later, it seems, every record gets broken! See the most incredible, awe-inspiring, and unbelievable facts about space. You will be educated and entertained.

The history of the "The Big Bang theory" is interesting. The Big Bang theory is a cosmological model of the observable universe from the earliest known certain periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. The model describes how the universe expanded from an initial state of extremely high density and high hot temperature, and offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of observed phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, and large-scale structure.

Crucially, the theory is compatible with Hubble-Lemaître law - the observation that the farther away galaxies are, the faster they are moving away from Earth. Extrapolating this cosmic expansion backwards in time using the known laws of physics, the theory describes a high density state preceded by a singularity in which space and time lose meaning. There is no evidence of any phenomena prior to the singularity. Detailed measurements of the certain expansion rate of the universe place the Big Bang at around 13.8 billion years ago, which is thus considered the age of the universe.

After its initial expansion, the universe cooled sufficiently to allow the formation of subatomic particles, and later atoms. Giant clouds of these primordial elements (mostly hydrogen, with some helium and lithium) later coalesced through gravity, forming early stars and galaxies, the descendants of which are visible today. Besides these primordial building materials, astronomers observe the gravitational effects of an unknown dark matter surrounding galaxies. Most of the gravitational potential in the universe seems to be in this form, and the Big Bang theory and various observations indicate that this gravitational potential is not made of baryonic matter, such as normal atoms. Measurements of the redshifts of supernovae indicate that the certain expansion of the universe is accelerating, an observation attributed to dark energy's existence.

What is "Baryonic Matter"? In astronomy and cosmology, baryonic dark matter is dark matter composed of baryons. Only a small proportion of the dark matter in the universe is likely to be baryonic.

In particle physics, a baryon is a type of composite subatomic particle which contains an odd number of valence quarks. Baryons belong to the hadron family of particles; hadrons are composed of quarks. Baryons are also classified as fermions because they have half-integer spin.

Saturday, January 23, 2021

15 Unsettling Sky Phenomena Hard To Explain


You will definitely enjoy looking through these - 15 Unsettling Sky Phenomena Hard To Explain. You could see the most bizarre things in the high clouds and sky that you have never seen before. They are something very out of the ordinary. You can't even describe these things. See stories of witnesses of these 15 Unsettling Sky Phenomena Hard to Explain.

The sky (also sometimes called celestial dome) is everything that lies above the surface of the Earth, including the atmosphere and outer space.

In the field of astronomy, the sky is also called the celestial sphere. This is an abstract sphere (concentric to the Earth) on which the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars appear to be drifting. The celestial sphere is conventionally divided into certain designated areas called constellations.

The daytime sky usually appears blue because air molecules scatter shorter wavelengths of sunlight more than longer ones (redder light). The night sky appears to be a mostly dark surface or region with stars.

Some of the common natural phenomena seen in the sky are clouds, rainbows, and aurorae. Lightning and precipitation are also often visible in the sky.

Some people might be wondering: what is a so-called black hole? A black hole is certainly a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing (no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light) can really escape from it. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a certain black hole.

How Small a Black Hole can Get? Quantum Mechanical Black Hole


Here's another new fascinating science video (from Science Loop on Youtube): How Small a Black Hole can Get? Quantum Mechanical Black Hole.

Take a look at amazing explanations of the so-called Smallest Black Hole that can possible. These kinds of Black Holes are very tiny. You could even hold them in your hand.

The black holes are the natural consequences of Einstein's general theory of Relativity. In general, we thought that black holes are so huge and so massive because they are formed when the core of the larger star collapses into its own gravity, but technically they can be formed when enough amount of matter is packed into a very small place.

These black holes are extremely tiny and very light - these are Quantum Mechanical Black holes or mini black holes or micro black holes.

These fascinating black holes can be found at The Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and highest-energy particle collider and the largest machine in the world. It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) between 1998 and 2008 in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and hundreds of universities and laboratories. The collaboration included more than 100 countries. The machine lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference and as deep as 175 metres (574 ft) beneath the France-Switzerland border near Geneva.

First collisions were achieved in 2010 at an energy of 3.5 teraelectronvolts (TeV) per beam, about 4 times the previous world record. After certain upgrades, it reached 6.5 TeV per beam (13 TeV total collision energy, the present world record). At the end of 2018, it entered a 2-year shutdown period for further upgrades.

The amazing LHC primarily collides proton beams, but it can also use beams of heavy ions: lead-lead collisions and proton-lead collisions are typically done for one month per year. The aim of the LHC's detectors is to allow physicists to test the predictions of different theories of particle physics, certainly including measuring the properties of the Higgs boson and searching for the interesting large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetric theories, as well as other unsolved questions of physics.

What is supersymmetry? In particle physics, supersymmetry (SUSY) is really a conjectured relationship between two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin. A type of spacetime symmetry, supersymmetry is a possible candidate for undiscovered particle physics, and seen by certain physicists as an elegant solution to many current problems in particle physics if confirmed correct, which could resolve various areas where current theories are believed to be incomplete. A supersymmetrical extension to the Standard Model could resolve major hierarchy problems within gauge theory, by guaranteeing that quadratic divergences of all orders will cancel out in perturbation theory.

A black hole is a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing (no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light) can escape from it. The interesting theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a so-called black hole.


Above: A Black Hole


Above: The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is amazing. Go here to get more information about it: https://home.cern/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider

Drake equation - Alien Life - Science Loop


Science Loop on Youtube talks about the visualization of the great famous Drake equation. This equation calculates the number of alien civilizations in our fantastic Milky way galaxy. "Are we alone in the whole universe" - this question is asked from ancient times. Humans are still wondering about this.

The Drake equation is a probabilistic argument used to estimate the number of active, communicative extraterrestrial civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy.

The equation was written in 1961 by Frank Drake, not for purposes of quantifying the number of civilizations, but as a way to stimulate scientific dialogue at the first scientific meeting on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). The fascinating equation summarizes the main concepts which smart scientists must contemplate when considering the question of other radio-communicative life. It is more properly thought of as an approximation than as a serious attempt to determine a precise number.

There is some criticism of the equation. Most criticism related to the Drake equation focuses not on the equation itself, but on the fact that the estimated values for several of its factors are highly conjectural, the combined multiplicative effect being that the uncertainty associated with any derived certain value is so large that the equation cannot be used to draw really firm conclusions.

Many scientists are searching for microbial life forms on other planets and moon in our solar system (Mars, Venus, Europa, Saturn). However, scientists in SETI (Search for extraterrestrial intelligence) are searching for extraterrestrial intelligent life forms.

There seems to be no sure "no evidence" of those alien beings. You might think that there is no way we could know any of these things right now.

The Fermi paradox, named after Italian-American physicist Enrico Fermi, is the apparent contradiction between the lack of evidence for extraterrestrial civilizations and various high estimates for their probability.

Below: The Drake Equation: See more information here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drake_equation




Vega Rocket Failure: 2nd time in 16 months, $373M payload lost (16 Nov 2020)


Read the Full Stories Here:

November 17, 2020 - Human error blamed for Vega launch failure:
https://spacenews.com/human-error-blamed-for-vega-launch-failure/

November 18, 2020 - Failed Launch Mission Costs France, Spain Satellites Worth $373 Million
https://www.moroccoworldnews.com/2020/11/326365/failed-launch-mission-costs-france-spain-satellites-worth-373-million/

A Vega rocket lifted off Nov. 16, but its payload of two satellites were lost when the rocket's fourth stage malfunctioned.

Arianespace executives said Nov. 17 that the failure of a Vega launch the previous day was caused when the rocket’s upper stage tumbled out of control due to incorrectly installed cables in a control system.

In a call with reporters, Roland Lagier, chief technical officer of Arianespace, said the first three stages of the Vega rocket performed normally after liftoff from Kourou, French Guiana, at 8:52 p.m. Eastern Nov. 16. The Avum upper stage then separated and ignited its engine.

The launch mission of two French and Spanish satellites on Tuesday, November 17, has failed, leading to losses estimated at $373 million.

Arianespace, the company operating the launch rocket, announced the mission’s failure soon after it deviated from its trajectory.

What is a Vega Rocket?

Vega (Italian: Vettore Europeo di Generazione Avanzata, or French: Vecteur européen de génération avancée, or English: European Vector of Advanced Generation meaning "Advanced generation European carrier rocket"), is an expendable launch system in use by Arianespace jointly developed by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and the European Space Agency (ESA). Development began in 1998 and the first launch took place from the Centre Spatial Guyanais on 13 February 2012.

The rocket is designed to launch small payloads - 300 to 2500 kg satellites for scientific and Earth observation missions to polar and low Earth orbits. The reference Vega mission is a polar orbit bringing a spacecraft of 1500 kg to an altitude of 700 km.

The rocket, named after Vega, the brightest star in the constellation Lyra, is a single-body launcher (no strap-on boosters) with three solid rocket stages: the P80 first stage, the Zefiro 23 second stage, and the Zefiro 9 third stage. The upper module is a liquid rocket called AVUM. The improved version of the P80 stage, the P120C, will be used as the side boosters of the Ariane 6. Italy is the leading contributor to the Vega program (65%), followed by France (13%). Other participants include Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Sweden.

What is Arianespace?

Arianespace SA is a multinational company founded in 1980 as the world's first commercial launch service provider. It undertakes the operation and marketing of the Ariane programme. The company offers a number of different launch vehicles: the heavy-lift Ariane 5 for dual launches to geostationary transfer orbit, the Soyuz-2 as a medium-lift alternative, and the solid-fueled Vega for lighter payloads.

As of May 2017, Arianespace had launched more than 550 satellites in 254 launches over 36 years (236 Ariane missions minus the first 8 flights handled by CNES, 17 Soyuz-2 missions and 9 Vega missions). The first commercial flight managed by the new entity was Spacenet F1 launched on 23 May 1984. Arianespace uses the Guiana Space Center in French Guiana as its main launch site. Through shareholding in Starsem, it can also offer commercial Soyuz launches from the Baikonur spaceport in Kazakhstan. It has its headquarters in Évry-Courcouronnes, Essonne, France.

France must have said, "sacré bleu" - a French expression of surprise, exasperation, or dismay.

"Sacré bleu, la fusée a échoué!" (the rocket failed!)

10 INSANE Space Events Happening in 2021


Factnomenal on Youtube shows you the interesting stuff: 10 space events happening in 2021! NASA space discoveries 2020 and outer space exploration is reaching new heights. With 2021 right around the corner, there are many universe events that are going to happen. You have to be interested about fascinating great space facts and facts about the universe.

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the USA federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and space research.

NASA was established in 1958, succeeding the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most USA space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the fascinating fantastic Orion spacecraft, the Space Launch System, and Commercial Crew vehicles. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program, which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for uncrewed NASA launches.

NASA science is certainly focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System; advancing heliophysics through the efforts of the Science Mission Directorate's Heliophysics Research Program; exploring bodies throughout the Solar System with advanced robotic spacecraft such as New Horizons; and really researching astrophysics topics, such as the Big Bang, through the Great Observatories and associated programs.

The Apollo 11 space mission is one of the most talked about. Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon. Commander Neil Armstrong and lunar module pilot Buzz Aldrin formed the American crew that landed the Apollo Lunar Module Eagle on July 20, 1969.

Kennedy space center is interesting for visitors.

Space x (SpaceX) is Space Exploration Technologies Corp. is an American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California. It was founded in 2002 by Elon Musk with the goal of reducing space transportation costs to enable the colonization of Mars.

The International Space Station is a modular space station in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project between five participating space agencies: NASA, Roscosmos, JAXA, ESA, and CSA. The ownership and use of the space station is established by intergovernmental treaties and agreements.

There are many satellites in space. In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object that has been intentionally placed into certain orbit. These objects are called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth's Moon.

On 4 October 1957 the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Since then, about 8,900 satellites from more than 40 countries have been launched. According to a 2018 estimate, some 5,000 remain in orbit. Of those about 1,900 were operational, while the rest have lived out their useful lives and become space debris. Approximately 63% of operational satellites are in low Earth orbit, 6% are in medium-Earth orbit (at 20,000 km), 29% are in geostationary orbit (at 36,000 km) and the remaining 2% are in elliptic orbit. In terms of countries with the most satellites the USA significantly leads the way with 859 satellites, China is second with 250, and Russia third with 146. These are then followed by India (118), Japan (72) and the UK (52). A few large space stations have been certainly launched in parts and assembled in orbit. Over a dozen space probes have been placed into orbit around other bodies and become artificial satellites of the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, a few asteroids, a comet and the Sun.

Is Earth Being Watched by Aliens?


Factnomenal on Youtube has the story: Are we being watched (by aliens)? Are weird aliens watching Earth? Outer space and the universe are so big that anything is possible. This space documentary 2020 contains facts about space that will shock you.

Some might think that aliens are having a laugh at us. Some might think that aliens aren’t watching us - they may have but realized we’re not that intelligent so just moved on.

Extraterrestrial life is hypothetical smart life which may occur outside of Earth and which did not originate on Earth. Such life might range from simple prokaryotes to intelligent beings and even sapient beings, possibly bringing forth civilizations which might be far more advanced than humanity. 

Prokaryotes are unicellular organisms that lack organelles or other internal membrane-bound structures. Therefore, they do not have a nucleus, but, instead, generally have a single chromosome: a piece of circular, double-stranded DNA located in an area of the cell called the nucleoid.

What is sapient? It means wise, or attempting to appear wise.
For example, "members of the female quarter were more sapient but no less savage than the others."

There is the Fermi Paradox that talks about chances that aliens exist, but it is unclear where are the aliens. New evidence raises the possibility, but scientists say it's more likely the findings involve non-biological processes.

10 Space Discoveries of 2020 Show We Might Not Be Alone


You might be wondering if We (Humans) Might Not Be Alone (with aliens) in this world. Astronomers from MIT registered a certain repeating signal from 500 million light years away. Such signals are called fast radio bursts, or FRBs, and they’re usually singular events. No one knows what their sources are. These signals are mysterious. It is possible that this is alien technology.

See Interesting Times in the Video:

The Moon is rusting 0:01
Unexplained radio signal 1:47
Earth-like planets 2:52
Life on Venus? 3:52
A doppelganger to Earth 4:50
A pattern in Earth’s climate variations 7:01
Did oil come from outer space? 8:04

Aliens definitely exist and they could be living among us on Earth, says Britain's first astronaut.

Aliens definitely exist, Britain's first astronaut has said. It is possible they're living among us on Earth but have gone undetected so far.

Helen Sharman, who visited the Soviet Mir space station in 1991, told the Observer newspaper on Sunday that "aliens exist, there's no two ways about it."

"There are so many billions of stars out there in the universe that there must be all sorts of different forms of life," she went on.

"Will they be like you and me, made up of carbon and nitrogen? Maybe not."

Then, in a tantalizing theory that should probably make you very suspicious of your colleagues, Sharman added: "It's possible they're here right now and we simply can't see them."

Sharman was the first of seven Britons to enter space.

Keep checking updates for new space discoveries.

Voyage of Curiosity: A Martian Chronicle 4k


This interesting film tells the epic story of NASA's Curiosity Rover on a mission to find out whether life could ever have existed on Mars and whether the planet is safe for humans. This film tracks the robotic explorer's perilous journey, from its certain risky landing to its momentous climb up the slopes of Mt. Sharp. It will rank as one of the great fascinating space missions, from Cassini at Saturn to Apollo on the Moon and Voyager beyond the solar system.

Curiosity is a car-sized Mars rover designed to explore the Gale crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission. Curiosity was launched from Cape Canaveral on November 26, 2011, at 15:02 UTC and landed on Aeolis Palus inside Gale on Mars on August 6, 2012, 05:17 UTC.

The hypothetical colonization of Mars has received lots of interest from public space agencies and private corporations, and has received extensive treatment in science fiction writing, film, and art.

Organizations have proposed plans for a human mission to Mars, the first step towards any colonization effort, but no person has set foot on the planet. However, landers and rovers have successfully explored the planetary surface and delivered information about conditions on the ground.

There are various reasons for colonizing Mars. The most recent commitments to researching permanent settlement include those by public space agencies: NASA, ESA, Roscosmos, ISRO and the CNSA. There are also private organizations: SpaceX, Lockheed Martin, and Boeing.

Mars curiosity rover is fascinating technology.

The curiosity rover landing is fantastic.

The curiosity rover cost is 2.5 billion USD. Key Takeaways. NASA's Curiosity rover left Earth in November 2011 and landed in August 2012. The mission was to last two years but was extended indefinitely. The rover came with a $2.5 billion price tag, a cost that's being spread over a number of years.

The curiosity rover size is 9 feet 10 inches. One thing that makes Curiosity stand out seems to be its sheer size: Curiosity is about the size of a small SUV. It is 9 feet 10 inches long by 9 feet 1 inch wide (3 m by 2.8 m) and about 7 feet high (2.1 m). It weighs 2,000 lbs. (900 kilograms).

The curiosity rover launch date was November 26, 2011, 10:02 a.m. EST.

The curiosity rover wheel damage happened. Wheel damage is nothing new for Curiosity; its wheels are certainly pitted with holes and dents from driving over Martian rocks. However, the two broken treads are the first sign of deeper wear on the affected wheel. "While not unexpected, this damage is the first sign that the left middle wheel is nearing a wheel-wear milestone."

Mars is the 4th planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, being larger than only Mercury. In English, Mars carries the name of the Roman god of war and is often referred to as the "Red Planet".

NASA's Artemis deep space lunar mission to include Canadian astronaut


Space Exploration Continues: NASA's Artemis fascinating deep space lunar mission to include Canadian astronaut.

Interesting Fun Space Facts:

A Van Allen radiation belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which originate from the solar wind, that are captured by and held around a planet by that planet's magnetic field. Earth has two such belts and sometimes others may be temporarily created. The "belts" were a hazard for the Apollo (Moon) missions. The astronauts had low exposure in "belts" due to the short period of time spent flying through them. Apollo flight trajectories tried to avoid "belts" when possible.

Artemis, in Greek religion, is the goddess of wild animals, the hunt, and vegetation and of chastity and childbirth; she was identified by the Romans with Diana. Artemis was the daughter of Zeus and Leto and the twin sister of Apollo.

If Earth had 2 moons, it would be catastrophic. An extra moon would lead to larger tides and wipe out major cities like New York and Singapore.

Besides the 2019 Chinese rover Yutu-2, the only artificial objects on the Moon that are still in use are the retroreflectors for the lunar laser ranging experiments left there by the Apollo 11, 14, and 15 astronauts, and by the Soviet Union's Lunokhod 1 and Lunokhod 2 missions.

The Outer Space Treaty says that no matter whose national flags are planted on the lunar surface - no nation can 'own' the Moon. As of 2019, 109 nations are bound by the Treaty, and another 23 have signed the agreement but have yet to be officially recognized. In the future, different countries could be parts of the moon.

The Outer Space Treaty says that astronauts shall be regarded as the envoys of mankind; States shall be responsible for national space activities whether carried out by governmental or non-governmental entities; States shall be liable for damage caused by their space objects; and. States shall avoid harmful contamination of space and celestial bodies.

With the NASA Artemis program, NASA will land the first woman and next man on the Moon by 2024, using innovative technologies to explore more of the lunar surface than ever before.

It will take some time for Artemis to get to the moon. While the journey to the Moon takes 3 days, reaching Mars is a far lengthier and more complicated goal.

The USA space agency (NASA) has formally outlined its $28bn (£22bn) plan to return to the Moon by 2024. NASA is still aiming for human missions to Mars in the 2030s.

The Moon's gravity at the surface is only 17% that of Earth's. Using the same force of a jump on Earth, you could rise about 3 metres (10 feet) off the ground and stay in the air for about 4 seconds.

Gravity on Mars is only actually about 38% of Earth's. So, if you weighed 100 pounds on Earth, you would only weigh about 38 pounds on Mars. And if you can jump one meter (3.3 feet) high on Earth, you would be able to jump 2.64 meters (almost 9 feet) high on Mars.

Outer space can be deadly. The most immediate threat in the cosmic vacuum is oxygen deprivation. Assuming that you don't hold your breath during decompression, it will take about 15 seconds for your O2 deprived blood to get to your brain. When this happens, you'll pass out - and then you will die.

Innovation Minister Navdeep Bains announced Wednesday that the Canadian and American governments have signed a new treaty outlining Canadian participation in the Artemis missions and locking in a seat for a Canadian astronaut on the 2023 launch.

The Moon is really Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

The Moon always shows Earth the same face.

The Moon's surface is actually pretty dark.

The Moon is drifting away from the Earth. The moon is slowly moving away from Earth at a rate of 3.8 centimeters (1.5 inches) per year, but the speed of its retreat has varied over time.

The Lunar Gateway, or simply the Gateway, is certainly a planned small space station in lunar orbit intended to serve as a solar-powered communication hub, science laboratory, short-term habitation module, and holding area for rovers and other useful robots.

The Moon is really an astronomical body that orbits the Earth as its only permanent natural satellite. Basically, the Moon is neither a star nor a planet, though it is always by the Earth's side and rotates with us synchronically as a satellite.

The Moon is made of rock and metal (just like the Earth and the other rocky planets) (Mercury, Venus and Mars). The crust, the Moon's outer shell, is covered by lunar soil, also called regolith: a blanket of fine rock particles, varying between three and 20 metres (10 to 65 feet) deep.

The moon is the brightest and largest object in our night sky. The Moon makes Earth a more livable planet by moderating our home planet's wobble on its axis, leading to a relatively stable climate. It also causes tides, creating a rhythm that has guided humans for thousands of years.

A Moon landing is really the arrival of a spacecraft on the surface of the Moon. This includes both crewed and robotic missions. The first human-made object to touch the Moon was the Soviet Union's Luna 2, on 13 September 1959. The United States' Apollo 11 was the first crewed mission to land on the Moon, on 20 July 1969.

India has announced plans for a third lunar mission, months after its last one crash landed on the Moon's surface.

China moon landings were on near side of Moon until 3 January 2019, when the Chinese Chang'e 4 spacecraft made the first landing on the so-called far side of Moon.

Main countries with space agencies are: the United States, Russia, Europe, Japan, and Canada. The ISS has been the most politically complex space exploration program ever undertaken. Facilities around the world support the operation and management of the International Space Station.

While a number of countries have built satellites, as of 2019, eleven countries have had the capability to send objects into orbit using their own launch vehicles. Russia and Ukraine inherited the space launchers and satellites capability from the Soviet Union, following its dissolution in 1991.

China's Chang'e-5 moon probe set for successful return to Earth


The China National Space Administration has certainly announced the Chang’e 5 returner module is set to land in Mongolia. On board are around 2 kilograms of moon rocks and dust. The mission has made China certainly the first country to have retrieved these samples since the 1970s. China has advanced space exploration.

Chang'e 5 is a robotic mission of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program. Like its predecessors, the spacecraft was named after the Chinese moon goddess, Chang'e.

Chang'e ( Chinese: 嫦娥 ), originally known as Heng'e, is the Chinese goddess of the Moon. She is the subject of several legends in interesting Chinese mythology, most of which incorporate several of the following elements: Houyi the archer, a benevolent or malevolent emperor, an elixir of life, and the Moon. She is married to Houyi. In modern times, Chang'e has certainly been the namesake of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program.

Chang’e-5 landed in Inner Mongolia. The Chang’e-5 sample return vehicle successfully landed in Siziwang Banner, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, on 16 December 2020.

Chang’e-5 is China’s first lunar mission to collect soil samples from the Moon and return them to Earth to be studied. Chang’e-5 collected samples near Mons Rümker, in the northern region of Oceanus Procellarum, a certain younger volcanic complex.

Chang'e-4 landed in Von Kármán crater, within the Moon's South Pole-Aitken basin, in December 2018. An ancient lunar impact there may have exposed the Moon's mantle.

Chang'e 1 and Chang'e 2 lofted moon orbiters in 2007 and 2010, respectively.

Chang'e 3 put a lander-rover duo down on the lunar nearside in December 2013.

The Chinese Lunar Exploration Program ( CLEP; Chinese: 中国探月 ). It is also known as the Chang'e Project ( Chinese: 嫦娥工程 ). This is really an ongoing series of robotic Moon missions by the China National Space Administration (CNSA). The program incorporates lunar orbiters, landers, rovers and sample return spacecraft, launched using Long March rockets. Launches and flights are monitored by a telemetry, tracking, and command (TT&C) system.

Telemetry is really the in situ collection of measurements or other data at remote points and their automatic transmission to receiving equipment for monitoring. The word is derived from the Greek roots tele, "remote", and metron, "measure".

The Long March rockets is a family of expendable launch system rockets operated by the China National Space Administration (CNSA). In English, the rockets are abbreviated as LM- for export and CZ- within China, as "Chang Zheng" (长征) means Long March in Chinese pinyin. The rockets are really named after the Long March of Chinese history.

Long March 5 is a Chinese heavy-lift launch vehicle developed by the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology. Successfully, it is the first Chinese launch vehicle designed from the ground up to focus on non-hypergolic liquid rocket propellants. There are currently two CZ-5 variants: CZ-5 and CZ-5B.

Rockets in Chinese history are interesting. Fascinatingly, rockets were first used as actual weapons in the battle of Kai-fung-fu in 1232 A.D. The Chinese attempted to repel Mongol invaders with barrages of fire arrows and, possibly, gunpowder-launched grenades.

It is better to launch a spaceship from near the equator. It gives it more speed. The explanation is complicated. The spin of the Earth itself can help give the spaceship "a push." The land at the equator is moving 1670 km per hour, and land halfway to the pole is only moving 1180 km per hour, so launching from the equator makes the spacecraft move almost 500 km/hour faster once it is launched.

You might have thought about why NASA launches from Florida. It was selected for 2 reasons:
(1) it is relatively near to the equator compared with other USA locations
(2) it is on the East Coast. An East Coast location was desirable because any rockets leaving Earth's surface and traveling eastward get a boost from the Earth's west-to-east spin.

Rockets can tilt to the side to get the best turn. A so-called gravity turn or zero-lift turn is a maneuver used in launching a spacecraft into, or descending from, an orbit around a celestial body such as a planet or a moon. It is a trajectory optimization that uses gravity to steer the vehicle onto its desired trajectory.