Sunday, July 18, 2021

*Broken* Physics of Loki in Marvel Multiverse; [No Spoilers] Science Loop


Take a look at Science Loop on Youtube with this new interesting video. It seems that Marvel's Loki Series is BROKEN! (NOT ClickBait), In every Episode, we can see Loki's parallel variant but at the End The Scientist says...but this is Absolutly wrong! I have some Logic!

MARVEL’S infamous ANTI-HERO Loki has made his way out of many "Impossible to escape" situations before, but in the new Disney+ Hotstar show Loki (the God of Mischief) may have finally become entangled in a fight that he can’t win - the war against time by getting the Tessaract with the power of his cleverness but believe it or not the time travel and the branching of the universe in Loki is possible according to the Quantum Theory. Let's see the Science of it. In Marvel Universe there's a Multiverse and time travel but is there any Logical hypothesis that can Affirm the Logical prove of Multiverse? Let's chase down the broken material science of Loki's Time Travel and Multiverse. In the 1st scene, Loki goes to a time jail and observe this animation video. (Supremessy) This isn't as it were the Science fiction. Quantum Hypothesis proposes at the starting of the universe all of the timeline colliding, quantum vacillation is taking put all over and out of that we got our world. So where's it broken? Back in Newtonian material science, he says that time streams same for each point on Space but Einstein came along and says "no" time is a bit like stream. It can moderate down and can speed up. and after that Quantum material science takes put and says the river can part up completely different branches and create a parallel reality. For more absolutely assume this tree may be a Timeline of a fundamental universe.

Time Stamps in video:

0:00 Loki Episode 1-6, Multiverse
0:34 Physics of Loki (break Down), What is multiverse?
01:13 Science of Time (Newton, Einstine, Quantum)
02:21 TVA and Real time travel
03:19 How to go across Parallel Universes (Einstein - Rosen bridge)
03:45 We Need Answer! Absolute broken

"Loki" is an American television series based on Marvel Comics featuring the character of the same name. Set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU), it shares continuity with the films of the franchise and takes place after the events of the film Avengers: Endgame (2019), in which an alternate version of Loki created a new timeline. Loki is really produced by Marvel Studios.

"Loki" premiered on June 9, 2021. Its first season, consisting of six episodes, concluded on July 14 and is part of Phase Four of the MCU. It seems to have received positive reviews, with praise for the performances and visuals. An interesting second season is in development.

Thursday, July 15, 2021

Could Solar Panels in Space Solve all Our Energy Needs?


SciShow Space on Youtube is pretty interesting. Humans on earth need more solutions for our energy needs, and one idea is straight out of science fiction: Solar panels, in space.

It seems that scientists working for the Pentagon have successfully tested a solar panel the size of a pizza box in space, designed as a prototype for a future system to send electricity from space back to any point on Earth.

It seems that a solar panel in space is collecting energy that could one day be beamed to anywhere on Earth.

The panel is known as the so-called Photovoltaic Radiofrequency Antenna Module (PRAM). It was first launched in May 2020, attached to the Pentagon's X-37B unmanned drone, to harness light from the sun to convert to electricity. The drone is looping Earth every 90 minutes.

Read more about this panel here:

Why is the Closest Planet Also the Most Difficult to Visit? NASA's MESSENGER Mercury Probe


Astrum on Youtube shows you why "Planet Mercury" has only had one dedicated mission.

Many people didn't know about this. This is something interesting to learn. It seems that the Closest Planet (generally called "closest to Earth") is also the most difficult to visit. Take a look at the story of NASA's MESSENGER Mercury Probe.

Having almost no atmosphere to retain heat, the planet has surface temperatures that vary "diurnally" more than on any other planet in the Solar System, ranging from 100 K (−173 °C; −280 °F) at night to 700 K (427 °C; 800 °F) during the day across the equatorial regions. The polar regions are constantly below 180 K (−93 °C; −136 °F). The planet has no known natural satellites.

Meaning of "diurnally": (adjective):

1. Relating to or occurring in a 24-hour period; daily.
2. Occurring or active during the daytime rather than at night: diurnal animals.

Mercury is the smallest planet in the Solar System and the closest to the Sun. Its orbit around the Sun takes 87.97 Earth days, the shortest of all the Sun's planets. It is named after the Roman god Mercurius (Mercury), god of commerce, messenger of the gods, and mediator between gods and mortals, corresponding to the Greek god Hermes (Ἑρμῆς). Like Venus, Mercury orbits the Sun within Earth's orbit as an inferior planet, and its apparent distance from the Sun as viewed from Earth never exceeds 28°. This proximity to the Sun means the planet can only be seen near the western horizon after sunset or the eastern horizon before sunrise, usually in twilight. At this time, it may appear as a bright star-like object but is often far more difficult to observe than Venus. From Earth, the planet telescopically displays the complete range of phases, similar to Venus and the Moon, which recurs over its so-called synodic period of approximately 116 days.

"Planet Mercury" rotates in a way that is unique in the Solar System. It is tidally locked with the Sun in a 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, meaning that relative to the fixed stars, it rotates on its axis exactly 3 times for every 2 revolutions it makes around the Sun. As seen from the Sun, in a frame of reference that rotates with the orbital motion, it appears to rotate only once every two Mercurian years. An observer on Mercury would therefore see only one day every two Mercurian years.

Mercury's axis has the smallest tilt of any of the Solar System's planets (about 1⁄30 degree). Its orbital eccentricity is the largest of all known planets in the Solar System; at perihelion, Mercury's distance from the Sun is only about two-thirds (or 66%) of its distance at aphelion. Mercury's surface appears heavily cratered and is similar in appearance to the Moon's, indicating that it has been geologically inactive for billions of years.

2 spacecraft have visited Mercury: Mariner 10 flew by in 1974 and 1975; and MESSENGER, launched in 2004, orbited Mercury over 4,000 times in four years before exhausting its fuel and crashing into the planet's surface on April 30, 2015. The BepiColombo spacecraft is planned to arrive at Mercury in 2025.

Mercury is 1 of 4 terrestrial planets in the Solar System, and is a rocky body like Earth. It is the smallest planet in the Solar System, with an equatorial radius of 2,439.7 kilometres. Mercury is also smaller (albeit more massive) than the largest natural satellites in the Solar System, Ganymede and Titan. Mercury consists of approximately 70% metallic and 30% silicate material.

Here on Earth, "Silicate Minerals" are the most common of Earth's minerals and include quartz, feldspar, mica, amphibole, pyroxene, and olivine.

Mercury can, like several other planets and the brightest stars, be seen during a total solar eclipse.

Like the Moon and Venus, Mercury exhibits phases as seen from Earth. It is "new" at inferior conjunction and "full" at superior conjunction. The planet is rendered invisible from Earth on both of these occasions because of its being obscured by the Sun, except its new phase during a transit.

Mercury is technically brightest as seen from Earth when it is at a full phase. Although Mercury is farthest from Earth when it is full, the greater illuminated area that is visible and the opposition brightness surge more than compensates for the distance. The opposite is true for Venus, which appears brightest when it is a crescent, because it is much closer to Earth than when gibbous.

Ground-based telescope observations of Mercury reveal only an illuminated partial disk with limited detail. The first of two spacecraft to visit the planet was Mariner 10, which mapped about 45% of its surface from 1974 to 1975. The second is the MESSENGER spacecraft, which after three Mercury flybys between 2008 and 2009, attained orbit around Mercury on March 17, 2011, to study and map the rest of the planet.

The Hubble Space Telescope cannot observe Mercury at all, due to safety procedures that prevent its pointing too close to the Sun.

The European Space Agency and the Japanese Space Agency developed and launched a joint mission called BepiColombo, which will orbit Mercury with two probes: one to map the planet and the other to study its magnetosphere. Launched on October 20, 2018, BepiColombo is expected to reach Mercury in 2025. It will release a magnetometer probe into an elliptical orbit, then chemical rockets will fire to deposit the mapper probe into a circular orbit. Both probes will operate for one terrestrial year. The mapper probe carries an array of spectrometers similar to those on MESSENGER, and will study the planet at many different wavelengths including infrared, ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma ray.

Space colonization is the hypothetical permanent habitation and exploitation of natural resources from outside planet Earth. As such it is a form of human presence in space, beyond human spaceflight or operating space outposts. Many arguments have been made for and against space colonization of various planets.

Sunday, June 6, 2021

China's space station transits over the sun


CGTN shows that a space enthusiast caught China's space station on camera as it transited over the sun, making it appear like a small airplane. The moment, which lasted for 0.5 seconds, was captured at around noon Beijing time.

China Sets Record With Experimental Fusion Reactor ‘EAST’, Fully Functional 'Artificial Sun' Soon?


CRUX Channel on Youtube shows that China’s Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) just achieved a significant milestone in the country’s quest to unlock clean and limitless energy. Chinese media reported that EAST ran at 120 million degrees Celsius for 101 seconds. For another 20 seconds, the 'artificial sun' also achieved a peak temperature of 160 million degrees Celsius.

The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), internal designation HT-7U (Hefei Tokamak 7 Upgrade), is certainly an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, China. The Hefei Institutes of Physical Science is conducting the experiment for the Chinese Academy of Sciences. It has operated since 2006.

It is the first tokamak to employ superconducting toroidal and poloidal magnets. It aims for plasma pulses of up to 1,000 seconds.

Sunday, May 30, 2021

Tianzhou-2 - China’s first fast docking


SciNews Channel on Youtube shows that the members of the Tianzhou-2 mission describe the docking between the Tianzhou-2 cargo spacecraft and the Tianhe Core Module as "China’s first fast automatic rendezvous and docking." The Tianzhou-2 cargo spacecraft autonomously docked to the Tianhe Core Module on 29 May 2021, at 21:01 UTC (30 May, at 05:01 China Standard Time). Tianzhou-2 (天舟二号) is the first spacecraft to dock to the Tianhe Core Module (天和核心舱), the first and main component of the China Space Station (中国空间站). 
Credit: China Central Television (CCTV)/China National Space Administration (CNSA)

Saturday, May 29, 2021

Possible UFOs seen swarming US Navy ship


Take a look at how UFO expert Nick Pope discusses new video ahead of Department of National Intelligence announcement to Congress.

A so-called unidentified flying object (UFO) is any aerial phenomenon that cannot immediately be identified or explained. Most UFOs are identified or investigated as conventional objects or phenomena. The term is widely used for claimed observations of extraterrestrial spacecraft, and was coined as an anacronym by Project Blue Book project head Edward J. Ruppelt. Another widely used term for the phenomenon is "flying saucer."

Canadarm2: Space Station's robotic arm hit by orbital debris - See the hole!


VideoFromSpace Channel on Youtube shows that a recent inspection of the the International Space Station's Canadarm2 has revealed that it was hit by orbital debris. See the hole that was created and a time-lapse of the robotic arm in action.

Canadarm2 is part of Canada's contribution to the International Space Station (ISS). This 17-metre-long robotic arm was extensively involved in the assembly of the orbiting laboratory.

Tasks: This Canadian robotic arm lends a helping hand to:

- perform Station maintenance
- move supplies, equipment, Dextre and even astronauts
- perform "cosmic catches" by grappling visiting vehicles and berthing them to the ISS

Friday, May 28, 2021

Ingenuity Mars Helicopter almost crashed during 6th flight but survived after anomaly


iGadgetPro Channel on Youtube shows the Mars Helicopter Flight story.

On May 22, 2021 NASA’s Ingenuity Mars Helicopter completed 6th flight on Red Planet but almost crashed due to unexpected anomaly. On the 91st Martian day, or sol, of NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover mission, the Ingenuity Mars Helicopter performed its sixth flight. The flight was designed to expand the flight envelope and demonstrate aerial-imaging capabilities by taking stereo images of a region of interest to the west. Ingenuity was commanded to climb to an altitude of 33 feet (10 meters) before translating 492 feet (150 meters) to the southwest at a ground speed of 9 mph (4 meters per second). At that point, it was to translate 49 feet (15 meters) to the south while taking images toward the west, then fly another 164 feet (50 meters) northeast and land.

Telemetry from Flight Six shows that the first 150-meter leg of the flight went off without a hitch. But toward the end of that leg, something happened: Ingenuity began adjusting its velocity and tilting back and forth in an oscillating pattern. This behavior persisted throughout the rest of the flight. Prior to landing safely, onboard sensors indicated the rotorcraft encountered roll and pitch excursions of more than 20 degrees, large control inputs, and spikes in power consumption. The resulting inconsistencies significantly degraded the information used to fly the helicopter, leading to estimates being constantly "corrected" to account for phantom errors. Large oscillations ensued.

Credit: nasa.gov, NASA/JPL-Caltech, NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU, NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU/Thomas Appéré

See the detailed explanations of Ingenuity’s 6th flight anomaly here:

Dark Matter findings suggest Einstein’s Theory of Relativity “may be wrong”


BBC News shows that "Dark Matter" is perhaps the most mysterious substance in the universe.  

Little is known about it.  Scientists are pretty sure it exists but don't know exactly what it is.

Yet it is fundamental to their explanation of the Universe. They believe it permeates space and amounts to around 80% of all matter. 

Dark matter does not emit or absorb light but is subject to the effects of gravity.  Because of that, astronomers can measure the way it distorts light from distant stars. 

Now for the first time they have mapped the distribution of dark matter in the Universe.  However the findings have deepened the mystery because they seem to contradict Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, one of the central pillars of modern physics. 

Sophie Raworth presents BBC News at Ten reporting by science correspondent Pallab Ghosh.

A huge part of the matter in the universe really is: dark matter. You can't really so-called "see" it. But, you could see the effects of its gravity. Experts are thinking about how this matter can really behave.

Scientists can see how dark matter is distributed based on how its gravity affects light. However, when astronomers compared recent data from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Very Large Telescope to current models, something didn’t really add up.

So-called "Current assumptions" about dark matter physics might not be entirely correct.

Dark matter is a form of matter thought to account for approximately 85% of the matter in the universe and about a quarter of its total mass - energy density or about 2.241×10⁻²⁷ kg/m³.

Dark matter can refer to any certain substance which interacts predominantly via gravity with visible matter (e.g., stars and planets). Hence in principle it need not be composed of a new type of fundamental particle but could, at least in part, be made up of standard baryonic matter, such as protons or neutrons.

Here is the explanation of "dark matter" in really simple terms. Dark matter is composed of particles that do not absorb, reflect, or emit light, so they cannot be detected by observing electromagnetic radiation. Dark matter is material that cannot be seen directly. We seem to know that dark matter exists because of the effect it has on objects that we can observe directly.

Proving that dark matter exists is certainly a difficult task. Scientists have not yet observed dark matter directly. It doesn't interact with baryonic matter and it's completely invisible to light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation, making dark matter impossible to detect with current instruments.

Some people may wrongfully think that there is no dark matter. However, without dark matter, galaxies would lose a large fraction of the gas that forms new stars immediate after the first major star-forming event they experienced.

Dark matter theory is certainly needed to account for the fact that galaxies don't seem to obey the fundamental laws of physics. That led scientists to believe there must be some invisible matter there to create a stronger gravitational pull and really faster stellar motion.

Wednesday, May 26, 2021

China reports rover's first drive on Mars


China certainly said that the Martian rover took a first drive on surface of Red Planet. A remote-controlled Chinese motorized rover drove down the ramp of its landing capsule on Saturday and onto the surface of planet Mars, making China the first nation to orbit, land and deploy a land vehicle on its inaugural mission to the Red Planet.

Planet Mars is certainly the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, being larger than only Mercury. In English, Mars carries the name of the Roman god of war and is often referred to as the "Red Planet."

Sunday, May 23, 2021

How SpaceX Build Their Rockets So Fast?


Futurity Channel on Youtube shows that SpaceX handles two-thirds of NASA’s launches (including many research payloads). It is interesting how Elon Musk manages to get his SpaceX employees to build successful rockets so quickly.

Since June 2010, rockets from the Falcon 9 group have launched 114 times, with 112 successful launches.

It seems that SpaceX is currently the only privately owned company that successfully delivers humans to the international space station.

It seems that the SpaceX flights are as cheap as $62 million, roughly two-thirds the price of a rocket from United Launch Alliance, a competitor.

How exactly does SpaceX manage to build their rockets so fast? 

It sure takes exceptional engineering.

Their rockets are all made with innovative technology. Some cost-saving options have been chosen, such as stainless steel (which costs about $3 per kilogram). Take a look at the full video for more explanations.

Monday, May 17, 2021

What If You Ate an Alien?


This alien video is pretty interesting. "What If" Channel on Youtube asks: Are we alone in this universe? Is there intelligent life out there? Or are they living among us? Humans have wondered about aliens for centuries. But, have you ever thought about the most important question of them all? Do you think this little green man tastes like chicken? Uh, I don't know if aliens will want to make contact after seeing this video. You've embarked on a galactic journey in search of extraterrestrial life. In the future, technology has advanced, allowing us to travel thousands of light-years away. We can finally explore the faraway planets in our galaxy. As you reach the first planet, your stomach rumbles in pain. You've been without food for days. The planet is barren and arid. There isn't anything around to eat. Except for this guy, an alien greeting you at the entrance of your spaceship. Houston, we have a problem, and you're going to kick our butts for this one. Why would you want to eat an alien in the first place? Would it be unethical? And, would they be safe to eat?

Sunday, May 16, 2021

China spacecraft makes successful landing on Mars


DW News shows that China has landed a spacecraft on Mars. This is the latest step in its ambitious space program. The Chinese rover will stay in its lander for a few days of tests before  exploring the Red Planet. The rover has yet to send back any images from Mars, but here's the story of how it got there - and what the mission aims to find out.

The name Tianwen means "Heavenly Questions" or "questions to heaven" or "quest for heavenly truth", and comes from the long poem of the same name written by Qu Yuan (c. 340-278 BC), a poet of ancient China.

Tianwen-1 (TW-1; simplified Chinese: 天问; traditional Chinese: 天問 ) is certainly an interplanetary mission by the China National Space Administration (CNSA) to send a robotic spacecraft to Mars, consisting of an orbiter, deployable camera, lander and the Zhurong rover. The spacecraft, with a total mass of nearly 5 tons, is one of the heaviest probes launched to Mars and carries 13 scientific instruments.

The scientific objectives of the mission relate to the geology of Mars, the current and past presence of water, the internal structure of the planet, identification of minerals and rock types on the surface, as well as characterization of the space environment and atmosphere of Mars.

At 23:18 UTC, on 14 May 2021, the Tianwen-1 lander successfully landed in the preselected landing area in the southern part of the Mars Utopia Planitia. The planet landing phase began with the release of the protective capsule containing the lander/rover. The capsule made an atmospheric entry followed by a descent phase under parachute, after which the lander used retro-propulsion to soft-land on Mars.

The lander had a "treacherous journey" through the Martian atmosphere.

This is certainly a major triumph for China's space ambitions, and the culmination of years of hard work.

This is a key event for the China Aerospace and Technology Corporation.

This is the China's first rover landing on another planet.

The icy area of Mars known as "Utopia Planitia" was formed by the violent impact of an asteroid about 4 billion years ago. Past space probes have discovered large amounts of frozen water under the surface here.

Friday, May 14, 2021

Record breaking space jump - free fall faster than speed of sound


Watch the record breaking space jump from 24.2 miles (38.9 km) above the surface of earth by 'Felix Baumgartner'.

The video features the recording from the on-board camera, giving a true and absolute experience of the jump.

It also features a free fall which breaks the sound barrier (speed of sound) at 846 miles/hr or 1361.5 km/hr without the use of any heavy machinery.

Saturday, May 8, 2021

China: New Space Station


The Tiangong Space Station (Chinese: 天宫 'Heavenly Palace') or Chinese large modular space station is a space station placed in low Earth orbit between 340-450 km above the surface. The Tiangong Space Station will be roughly one-fifth the mass of the International Space Station and about the size of the decommissioned Russian Mir space station. The Tiangong is expected to have a mass between 80 and 100 t (180,000 and 220,000 lb). Operations will be controlled from the Beijing Aerospace Command and Control Center in China. The core module, the Tianhe ("Harmony of the Heavens"), launched on 29 April 2021.

The construction of the station will manifest the 3rd phase of the Tiangong program. It builds on the experience gained from its precursors, Tiangong-1 and Tiangong-2. Chinese leaders hope that research conducted on the station will improve researchers' ability to conduct science experiments in space, beyond the duration offered by China's existing space laboratories.

The Chinese large modular space station is designed to be used for 10 years which could be extended to 15 years and will accommodate 3 astronauts.

With the core module deployed and stocked, China will launch 3 taikonauts to live on the CSS. The launch is expected to take place in June 2021. This crewed mission, named Shenzhou-12, will be China's 7th, and the first since the Shenzhou-11 mission in 2016.

China is seeking to enhance its capacity for scientific and technological innovation by building the large modular space station.

UFO flying close to SpaceX capsule


A weird mysterious object was certainly captured on video soaring close to the SpaceX Crew Dragon shortly after the astronauts left earth Friday morning. Sources say it could be ice from liquid oxygen in the rocket.

The so-called Dragon spacecraft is capable of carrying up to 7 passengers to and from Earth orbit, and beyond. It is the only spacecraft currently flying that is capable of returning significant amounts of cargo to Earth, and is the first private spacecraft to take humans to the space station.

SpaceX returns 4 astronauts to Earth from International Space Station


Global News shows that SpaceX safely returned 4 astronauts from the International Space Station on Sunday, making the first USA crew splashdown in darkness since the Apollo 8 moonshot.

The Crew Dragon capsule parachuted into the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Panama City, Florida, just before 3 a.m., ending the second astronaut flight for Elon Musk’s company.

The crew - NASA's Michael Hopkins, Victor Glover and Shannon Walker, and Japan's Soichi Noguchi - had launched from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida on Nov. 15, propelled by a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket.

"It's not very often you get to wake up on the Space Station and go to sleep in Houston," Holly Ridings, NASA's chief flight director said at a news conference on Sunday. 

The 167-day mission was the longest for a crew capsule launching from the USA. The previous record of 84 days was set by NASA’s final Skylab station astronauts in 1974.

SpaceX: Starship - SN15 - High-Altitude Flight Test


As early as Wednesday, May 5, the SpaceX team will attempt a high-altitude flight test of Starship serial number 15 (SN15). For SpaceX, this is the 5th high-altitude flight test of a Starship prototype from Starbase in Texas. SN15 has vehicle improvements across structures, avionics and software, and the engines that will allow more speed and efficiency throughout production and flight: specifically, a new enhanced avionics suite, updated propellant architecture in the aft skirt, and a new Raptor engine design and configuration.

Similar to previous high-altitude flight tests of Starship, SN15 will be powered through ascent by 3 Raptor engines, each shutting down in sequence prior to the vehicle reaching apogee - approximately 10 km in altitude. SN15 will perform a propellant transition to the internal header tanks, which hold landing propellant, before reorienting itself for reentry and a controlled aerodynamic descent.

Take a look at the SpaceX Channel on Youtube to stay tuned for more updates.

Chinese rocket debris to cause limited damage, expert predicts


Global News shows that the remnants of China's largest rocket launched last week are expected to plunge back through the atmosphere - this will be dropping the equivalent of 3 pickup trucks or a small plane late Saturday or early Sunday, an expert said. 

Long March 5B, the Chinese rocket, is equivalent in size to an unloaded semi-truck and weighs roughly 22 tons (as much as nine tons of material) and is expected to survive, Ted Muelhaupt, principal director of The Center for Orbital and Reentry Debris Studies (Cords) at the Aerospace Corporation, said.

The space debris will likely fall into the ocean. However, China has had 2 uncontrolled re-entries in the space of a year.

"There was enough reaction to the last one last May - most people thought they (China) would have learned their lesson and not done it again, but apparently they have," Muelhaupt said.

The Long March 5B is one of the largest pieces of space debris to return to Earth. The core stage of the first Long March 5B that returned to Earth last year weighed nearly 20 tons, surpassed only by debris from the Columbia space shuttle in 2003, the Soviet Union's Salyut 7 space station in 1991, and NASA's Skylab in 1979.

The so-called Long March 5 (LM-5; Chinese: 长征五号 ) is also known as Chang Zheng 5 (CZ-5). This is a Chinese heavy-lift launch vehicle developed by the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT). It is the first Chinese launch vehicle designed to use exclusively non-hypergolic liquid propellants. It is the 5th iteration of the Long March rocket family, named for the Chinese Red Army's 1934-35 Long March, during the Chinese Civil War.

Thursday, April 22, 2021

Scientists Have Found Out That a 9th Planet Exists, but Something Strange Is Happening


TheSimplySpace on Youtube shows that the technical advances of recent years have not stopped at the field of astronomy. Gigantic discoveries such as the first photo of a black hole show that there are still numerous unexplored objects and phenomena in our universe. According to extrapolations by astrophysicists, there are probably as many as 100 billion galaxies in space and an equally large number of planets in the Milky Way alone, whose existence we have not yet learned of.

Some science out there is pseudoscience. The word pseudoscience is derived from the Greek root pseudo meaning false and the English word science, from the Latin word scientia, meaning "knowledge". Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that claim to be both scientific and factual but are incompatible with the scientific method.

Some people may believe that a 9th planet exists in our solar system. Our solar system consists of our star, the Sun, and everything bound to it by gravity - the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, dwarf planets such as Pluto, dozens of moons and millions of asteroids, comets and meteoroids.

Planet 9 (Nine) is a hypothetical planet in the outer region of the Solar System. Its gravitational effects could explain the unusual clustering of orbits for a group of extreme so-called trans-Neptunian objects (ETNOs), bodies beyond Neptune that orbit the Sun at distances averaging more than 250 times that of the Earth. These ETNOs tend to make their closest approaches to the Sun in one sector, and their orbits are similarly tilted. These alignments suggest that an undiscovered planet may be shepherding the orbits of the most distant known Solar System objects. Nonetheless, some astronomers indeed question the idea that the hypothetical planet exists and instead assert that the clustering of the ETNOs orbits is due to observing biases, resulting from the difficulty of discovering and tracking these objects during much of the year.

Based on earlier considerations, this hypothetical super-Earth-sized planet would have had a predicted mass of 5 to 10 times that of the Earth, and an elongated orbit 400 to 800 times as far from the Sun as the Earth. Konstantin Batygin and Michael E. Brown suggested that Planet Nine could be the core of a giant planet that was ejected from its original orbit by Jupiter during the genesis of the Solar System. Others proposed that the planet was captured from another star, was once a rogue planet, or that it formed on a distant orbit and was pulled into an eccentric orbit by a passing star.

The section of the universe, which humans can see, resembles a tiny puzzle piece, which is put together by researchers for centuries piece by piece. Not even the solar system known to us has been completely explored, as can be seen from the discovery of the possible dwarf planet Farout only two years ago or the discussion about a gas in the atmosphere of Venus that could indicate life. For several years, researchers have also speculated about the possibility of another planet in our solar system. Since Pluto's planetary status was revoked, eight have been counted among them. Newest research results from California let astronomy enthusiasts now again strongly listen: There is actually a mathematical proof for the ninth planet in our solar system!

In August 2006, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) downgraded the status of Pluto to that of "dwarf planet." This means that from now on only the rocky worlds of the inner Solar System and the gas giants of the outer system will be designated as planets.

5 Theories About What Lies Outside The Observable Universe


TheSimplySpace on Youtube shows that about 13.75 billion years ago, our universe as we know it was created.

Keep in mind, the Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model of the observable universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. The model describes how the universe expanded from an initial state of high density and temperature.

Shortly after the universe was created, the primordial light began to shoot through the cosmos and spread throughout the entire early universe. At this time the universe itself also expanded. However, the inflation of the universe slowed down after the first initial eruption, but since then the rate of expansion has been steadily increasing due to the influence of increasing dark energy. In essence, the cosmos has been growing at an ever-increasing rate since its creation.

Physicists and mathematicians certainly have been studying the nature of the universe for hundreds of years, trying to solve the mysteries it contains. But there are some scientists who go one step further into the unknown by thinking about what lies beyond the boundaries of our universe. Is it possible that there is something else beyond the existence of our universe? Other universes, worlds whose existence we can only guess at? That could well be the case. These are the 5 theories in the video about what this "something" could be and what clues there are for the various theories.

10 Space Photos That Will Give You Nightmares


Factnomenal on Youtube shows that outer space images can be scary. Space discoveries by the Hubble space telescope are made often. NASA focuses on finding new things within the Universe and sometimes they run into pretty creepy things. Enjoy this space video showing off creepy space images as part of the space discoveries 2020 series!

10 Planet Discoveries That Scare Astronomers - Space Discoveries 2020


Factnomenal on Youtube shows the strangest planets ever discovered by NASA! These latest and recent space discoveries 2020 reveal some of the strangest planets ever discovered. There are some planets like earth and some so different. The universe contains so many planets that it is impossible to count them all. These amazing space discoveries are for sure something you have never seen before.

The order of the planets in the solar system, starting nearest the sun and working outward is the following: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and then the possible Planet Nine.

Planet Nine is certainly a hypothetical planet in the outer region of the Solar System. Its gravitational effects could explain the unusual clustering of orbits for a group of extreme so-called trans-Neptunian objects, bodies beyond Neptune that orbit the Sun at distances averaging more than 250 times that of the Earth.

10 Recent Space Discoveries That Scientists Can't Explain


TheSimplySpace on Youtube shows that the universe has endless expanses. It is full of surprises and ever new events. This month, the news of new sightings, mysterious apparitions and fascinating events have once again come thick and fast. See the most recent and amazing discoveries of the scientists.

Something Strange is Surrounding Our Solar System - 10 Insane Space Discoveries


Factnomenal shows that something strange is surrounding our solar system. Here are 10 space discoveries that may shock! Astronomers from all over the world have gathered these discoveries from using space telescopes like the Hubble Space Telescope as well as the Kepler Space Telescope. With the new Mars Perseverance rover roaming the Martian surface, we will soon have a lot more amazing discoveries!

20 Most Incredible Recent Space Discoveries To Blow Your Mind


Unexplained Mysteries on Youtube shows 20 most incredible recent space discoveries to blow your mind. Take a look at these 20 most incredible recent space discoveries to blow your mind.

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, known by the acronym NASA, was established in 1958. NASA is responsible for the United States’ civilian space programme as well as aeronautical discoveries and space research. High-profile examples of NASA’s work include the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space centre and the Space Shuttle programme. NASA is committed to the ongoing investigation of planets and other features of our Universe, and regularly reports on new discoveries.

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is certainly an independent agency of the USA federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and space research.

NASA was established in 1958, succeeding the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science.

25 Scary But True Space Facts


Factnomenal on Youtube shows 25 SCARY space facts that may keep you up at night. Some of these interesting facts are amazing yet terrifying at the same time. As the days go one, we learn more about our universe, one outer space discovery at a time!

Deep Space Discoveries Indicate Spectacular Objects Exist Far Beyond our Solar System


DTTV - Science Answers on Youtube shows that with the giant powerful telescopes​ now being made available to astronomers​, we are at the verge of discovering previously unfathomable details about exoplanets​. The Kepler mission showed us that exoplanets​ were not rare, and there are millions or trillions out there, waiting for our discovery. The first-ever exoplanet discovered was born at least a 100 times farther away from its Sun than where it is now.

15 Most Mysterious Space Discoveries


Top Fives on Youtube shows that Outer Space is a mysterious place! They are taking a look at some of the most mysterious discoveries in outer space out there.

Wednesday, April 21, 2021

Black Hole or Cosmic Light Switch?


ThunderboltsProject on Youtube shows that a new scientific paper describes an unprecedented and so-called "mind boggling" event around a so-called black hole - an event so rapid, energetic and completely unexpected to astronomers, it challenges the very bedrock of black hole theory. 

A team of scientists studying an active galactic nucleus observed the brightness of a so-called black hole corona drop by a factor of 10,000 in less than one year.  A co-author of a new paper on the discovery stated, "We expect that luminosity changes this big should vary on timescales of many thousands to millions of years. But in this object, we saw it change by 10,000 over a year, and it even changed by a factor of 100 in eight hours, which is just totally unheard of and really mind-boggling."

Scientists Are Finally Unveiling Secret Space Mysteries


TheSimplySpace on Youtube shows the infinite expanses of space hold many mysteries that fire the imagination of man. They range from inexplicable events to accounts of people who have been in space. Join them in the world of secret space mysteries in the video.

Extracts First Oxygen from Mars: NASA’s Perseverance Mars Rover


iGadgetPro on Youtube shows that Oxygen on Mars was generated by Perseverance Rover’s MOXIE instrument (first results).

On April 21, 2021, NASA confirmed Perseverance Rover’s MOXIE generated Oxygen on Mars for the first time. Test took place April 20, the 60th Martian day of Perseverance Rover. First MOXIE experiment allowed Perseverance to generate about 6 grams of Oxygen. It is enough for human to breathe for about 10 minutes while accomplishing normal tasks.

Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment (MOXIE) accomplished the task to generate Oxygen O2 from Mars’s carbon dioxide CO2 atmosphere. After an hour of operation the total oxygen produced was about 5.4 grams, enough to keep an astronaut healthy for about 10 minutes of normal activity. Mars’ atmosphere is 96% carbon dioxide. MOXIE works by separating oxygen atoms from carbon dioxide molecules, which are made up of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms. A waste product, carbon monoxide, is emitted into the Martian atmosphere. MOXIE’s shield is made of gold.

The New Crisis in Cosmology


PBS Space Time has good news and bad news. Bad news first: 2 years ago they reported on the Crisis in Cosmology. Since then, it’s only gotten worse. And actually, the good news is also that the crisis in cosmology has actually gotten worse, which means they may be onto something!

Mars Geology Gets Even "Weirder"


ThunderboltsProject shows that in recent months, according to a number of scientific reports, the dusty winds and sand dune formations on the planet Mars have grown even more mysteries. In this episode, we explore why Electric Universe geology may hold the key to resolving both the mysterious processes in Mars' past, and those happening today.

Mars is the 4th planet from the Sun and the 2nd-smallest planet in the Solar System, being larger than only Mercury. In English, Mars carries the name of the Roman god of war and is often referred to as the "Red Planet". The latter refers to the effect of the iron oxide prevalent on Mars's surface, which gives it a reddish appearance distinctive among the astronomical bodies visible to the naked eye. Mars is certainly a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, with surface features reminiscent of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys, deserts and polar ice caps of Earth.

SpaceX Falcon Heavy beats out ULA Vulcan for NASA Moon rover launch


ENGINEERING TODAY on Youtube shows that SpaceX Falcon Heavy beats out ULA Vulcan for NASA Moon rover launch - Blue Origin human space flight.

It seems that SpaceX is winning the launch of NASA’s VIPER rover.

SpaceX will now launch NASA’s Moon rover to the lunar soil in 2023. This way SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy rocket has effectively beaten out United Launch Alliance’s Vulcan Centaur launch vehicle from their way to get that launch contract. According to the contract, SpaceX will now send a NASA rover and commercial lander to the Moon. Astrobotic, a company which won NASA’s lander contract in CLPS program, had earlier announced that they contracted with ULA to launch their first small so-called "Peregrine" lander and numerous NASA payloads to the Moon in 2021. Astrobotic then had selected ULA’s Vulcan Centaur as their launch vehicle for the "Peregrine" lander.

April 12 - sixty years since Yuri Gagarin went into space


BBC News shows that for the Soviet Union, Yuri Gagarin’s single orbit of the Earth was a huge achievement. There will be celebrations across Russia to mark the anniversary.

On April 12, 1961, aboard the spacecraft Vostok 1, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin becomes the first human being to travel into space. During the flight, the 27-year-old test pilot and industrial technician also became the first man to orbit the planet, a feat accomplished by his space capsule in 89 minutes.

Billionaire is Paying Elon Musk to Send Him to Space


VICE News shows that Jared Isaacman is the billionaire founder of Shift4 Payments, and recently got SpaceX to sell him a personal mission to outer space. This first all-civilian mission is scheduled for late 2021, and will see Isaacman and 3 other crew members launch on a Crew Dragon for a tour of the outer space areas.

NASA calls SpaceX 'best value' for next manned lunar mission


CNBC Television shows how CNBC's Morgan Brennan reports on the new partnership between NASA and SpaceX as the corporate space race heats up.

Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) is certainly an American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California. It was founded in 2002 by Elon Musk with the goal of reducing space transportation costs to enable the colonization of so-called planet Mars. SpaceX manufactures the Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy launch vehicles, several rocket engines, Dragon cargo and crew spacecraft and Starlink satellites.

It seems that recently NASA chose only SpaceX for its return to the moon even though the agency's stated plans called for 2 commercial partners.

SpaceX had been competing against Blue Origin and Dynetics for a pair of contracts for NASA's Artemis (moon flight) program. But, NASA on Friday announced SpaceX would get an exclusive $2.9 billion contract.

Pentagon confirms leaked UFO video is real


It seems that the Pentagon has confirmed that recently-leaked UFO video is real.

The Pentagon is the headquarters building of the USA Department of Defense. As a symbol of the USA military, the phrase The Pentagon is also often used as a metonym or synecdoche for the Department of Defense and its leadership.

Scientists find “strong evidence” for new mystery sub-atomic force of nature


BBC News shows that an international team of scientists, working on a project in the United States, say they have discovered strong evidence for the existence of a new force of nature. 

They say some sub-atomic particles - called muons - don't behave in a way predicted by current theories of physics. 

The British funders of the research say that scientists are "on the precipice of a new era of physics." 

Huw Edwards presents BBC News at Ten reporting by science correspondent Pallab Ghosh.

The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass. It is classified as a lepton.

This Might Be a Brand-New Kind of Star


SciShow Space on Youtube shows that astronomers have theorized about an invisible star made up of theoretic particles in the past, but did we recently detect the gravitational waves of two of them colliding? Plus, extraterrestrial rocks from a decades-old mission keep yielding new discoveries!

Launch Of NASA's SpaceX To International Space Station


NBC News shows live coverage of the SpaceX Crew-1 launch as 4 astronauts head to the International Space Station. The Crew Dragon will take off from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla.

The NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) is America’s civil space program and the global leader in space exploration. The agency has a diverse workforce of just under 18,000 civil servants, and works with many more USA contractors, academia, and international and commercial partners to explore, discover, and expand knowledge for the benefit of humanity. With an annual budget of $23.2 billion in Fiscal Year 2021, which is less than 0.5% of the overall U.S. federal budget, NASA supports more than 312,000 jobs across the United States, generating more than $64.3 billion in total economic output (Fiscal Year 2019).

Australia’s first Homemade spacecraft


7NEWS Australia shows that as Australia steps up into the international space race, a Sydney start-up is building the nation's largest homemade spacecraft.

The Biggest Space News Stories of 2020


NOVA PBS Official shows that the coronavirus pandemic may have been the biggest science news story of 2020, but it wasn't the only story. Discover three of the greatest space developments of the year and what 2021 may bring.

Space junk: Even small fragments have the potential to cause significant damage


DW News shows that planet Earth is slowly being wrapped in a cloud of debris. Experts estimate that nearly 130 million pieces of scrap metal are currently orbiting our planet. Most are only a few millimeters in size, but there are also tanks, rocket stages and old satellites. Because of their high speed, even small fragments have the potential to cause dangerous significant damage.

Tuesday, April 20, 2021

Mars Helicopter Ingenuity's first Flight video (lift off and landing) - Science Loop


Science Loop on Youtube shows that Mars Ingenuity helicopter has made flight history!

NASA’s Ingenuity Mars Helicopter Succeeds in Historic First Flight

Monday, NASA’s Ingenuity Mars Helicopter became the first aircraft in history to make a powered, controlled flight on another planet. The Ingenuity team at the agency’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California confirmed the flight succeeded after receiving data from the helicopter via NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover at 6:46 a.m. EDT (3:46 a.m. PDT).

***Due to lack of time and information the quality and information of the video is not good enough.

There is also first image from Ingenuity's onboard camera during fly in Mars's atmosphere. NASA's Ingenuity Mars Helicopter took this shot while hovering over the Martian surface on April 19, 2021.

NASA is calling the flight a "Wright Brothers moment" on the Red Planet Mars!

Mars Ingenuity helicopter is also Autonomous. It takes some time to communicate from Earth to Mars. Because of this time delay, we can not use joystick. That is why scientists made it Autonomous. Cool! Isn't it?

NASA's experimental helicopter Ingenuity certainly rose into the thin air above the dusty red surface of Mars planet on Monday, achieving the first powered flight by an aircraft on another planet.

The triumph was hailed as a "Wright brothers moment." The small mini 4-pound (1.8-kilogram) helicopter certainly succeeded.

The first flight was short (just 39 seconds) - but it accomplished a major milestone.

The $85 million USA helicopter demo was considered high risk yet high reward.

To accomplish the fascinating Mars flight, the helicopter's twin, counter-rotating rotor blades needed to spin at 2,500 revolutions per minute - 5 times faster than on Earth.

The helicopter has an excellent solar panel for recharging the batteries, crucial for its survival during the -90 C Martian nights.

Saturday, April 10, 2021

Elon Musk Neuralink Monkey Brain Plays Pong Game explained - Science Loop


Science Loop on Youtube has interesting explanations. Neuralink just implanted a chip in a monkey's brain and demonstrated it playing video games with its mind. The science behind that could be a game-changer. Pager, a nine year old Macaque, plays MindPong with his Neuralink.

The Neuralink Website is at https://neuralink.com

Neuralink Corporation is a neurotechnology company founded by Elon Musk and others, developing implantable brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). The company's headquarters is in San Francisco. The company was started in 2016 and was first publicly reported in March 2017.

Since its founding, the company has hired several high-profile neuroscientists from various universities. By July 2019, it had received $158 million in funding (of which $100 million was from Musk) and was employing a staff of 90 employees. At that time, Neuralink announced that it was working on a "sewing machine-like" device capable of implanting very thin (4 to 6 μm in width) threads into the brain, and demonstrated a system that read information from a lab rat via 1,500 electrodes, they had anticipated starting experiments with humans in 2020; but have since moved that projection to 2021.

This innovative technology has certainly been criticized by several neuroscientists and publications, including the MIT Technology Review.

Elon Musk founded Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) - an American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.

The monkey "Pager" has learned to control a computer with his brain activity. At first, the monkey uses a joystick to interact with the computer for a "tasty banana smoothie, delivered through a straw." It seems that Pager has 2 Neuralink devices implanted in his brain. The devices, which Musk calls a "Fitbit for your skull," were certainly revealed at a press briefing in August 2020.

The Neuralink devices in the monkey's brain are reading his brain activity. When the team disconnect the joystick, Pager keeps playing the game - and the amazing brain-implant allows him to play the game "MindPong."

So-called "MindPong is an initial demonstration of the potential capabilities of the N1 Link. In the future, the device could be able to achieve even greater things.

Sunday, April 4, 2021

Bizarre Space Discoveries That Left Astronomers Worried


Factnomenal shows excellent Bizarre Space Discoveries That Left Astronomers Worried. These amazing space discoveries will make you wonder what is really out there in outer space. See interesting space discoveries, space facts, and interesting facts about space in general.

Outer space is certainly the expanse that exists beyond Earth and between celestial bodies. Outer space is not completely empty (it is a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles, predominantly a plasma of hydrogen and helium). It also contains electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, neutrinos, dust, and cosmic rays. The baseline temperature of outer space, as set by the background radiation from the Big Bang, is 2.7 kelvins (−270.45 °C; −454.81 °F).

Scientific observations suggest that the majority of the mass-energy in the observable universe is dark energy, a type of vacuum energy that seems to be poorly understood. Intergalactic space takes up most of the volume of the universe, but even galaxies and star systems consist almost entirely of empty space, it seems.

Aliens Are Real, Says Harvard Astronomer


VICE News shows that when an object called ʻOumuamua' was detected flying through our solar system in 2017, scientists were baffled by its strange behavior. Many said it was just a bizarre space rock, but Harvard astrophysicist Avi Loeb believes it was most likely a relic of an alien civilization. And he thinks you should believe that too.

In this episode of The Space Show, Motherboard reporter Becky Ferreira speaks with Professor Avi Loeb, chair of Harvard's astronomy department and author of the new book "Extraterrestrial."

Extraterrestrial life is hypothetical life which may occur outside Earth and which did not originate on Earth. Such life might range from simple prokaryotes (or comparable life forms) to intelligent beings and even sapient beings, possibly bringing forth civilizations which might be far more really advanced than humanity. The Drake equation speculates about the existence of sapient life elsewhere in the so-called universe. The science of extraterrestrial life in all its forms is certainly known as astrobiology.

Definition of word: sapient:

adjective

1. FORMAL
wise, or attempting to appear wise.
"members of the female quarter were more sapient but no less savage than the others"

2. relating to the human species ( Homo sapiens ).
"our sapient ancestors of 40,000 years ago"

noun

a human of the species Homo sapiens.

Since the mid-20th century, active ongoing research has taken place to look for signs of possible extraterrestrial life.

NASA's $10 Billion Time Machine - James Webb Space Telescope


Take a look at the James Webb Space Telescope. It will peer back in time billions of years to unlock some of the greatest secrets in the universe. Telescope scientists Heidi Hammel and Matt Mountain share their insights into the coolest space telescope ever.

So long as the weather, temperature, and other certain conditions cooperate, the nominal launch date for James Webb is October 31, 2021. NASA's James Webb Space Telescope looks good in its full configuration.

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST or "Webb") is a joint NASA-ESA-CSA space telescope that is planned to succeed the Hubble Space Telescope as NASA's flagship astrophysics mission. The JWST will provide improved infrared resolution and sensitivity over Hubble, and will enable a broad range of interesting investigations across the fields of astronomy and cosmology, including observing some of the most distant events and objects in the universe, such as the formation of the certain first galaxies.

The JWST is being developed by NASA, the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency.

Development first began in 1996 for a launch that was initially planned for 2007 and a 500-million-dollar budget.

However, the project has had numerous delays and cost overruns. The project underwent a major redesign in 2005. The cost of developing the telescope is actually something over $10 billion.

NASA's Ingenuity helicopter set to make history on Mars


CTV News shows that a solar-powered helicopter is about to embark on a historic flight on Mars with a nod to the Wright Brothers.

The Name of the helicopter is Ingenuity. The Main Job is to be a technology demonstration to test the first powered flight on Mars. The helicopter rode to Mars attached to the belly of the Perseverance rover. It landed on Feb. 18, 2021 to Jezero Crater, Mars.

It is sure taking flight on another planet world. Once the Perseverance rover reaches a suitable "helipad" location, it will release Ingenuity to perform a series of test flights over a 30-Martian-day experimental window beginning in early April.

For the first flight, the helicopter will take off a few feet from the ground, hover in the air for about 20 to 30 seconds, and land. That will be the first powered flight in the extremely thin atmosphere of Mars. Additional experimental flights will be added of incrementally farther distance and greater altitude. After the helicopter completes its technology demonstration, Perseverance will continue its important scientific mission.

This is the first helicopter ever designed to fly successfully in the thin Martian air. The helicopter demonstrates miniaturized flying technology. Parts are small: onboard computers, electronics and other parts. The helicopter is light enough to take off.

"Ingenuity helicopter" will use solar power to charge its batteries and rely on internal heaters to maintain operational temperatures during the so-called cold Martian nights.

Helicopter Features:

- Weighs 4 pounds (1.8 kg)
- Solar-powered and recharges on its own
- Wireless communication system
- Counter-rotating blades spin about 2,400 rpm
- Equipped with computers, navigation sensors, and 2 cameras (one color and one black-and-white)
- Height: about 19 inches (0.49 meters)
- Rotor system span: about 4 feet (1.2 meters)

Keep in mind, the average gravitational acceleration on Mars is 3.72076 ms−2 (about 38% of that of Earth) and it varies.

The gravity on Mars' surface seems to be much lower than it is here on Earth - 62% lower to be precise. At just 0.376 of the Earth standard (or 0.376 g), a person who weighs 100 kg on Earth would weigh only 38 kg on Mars.

Friday, April 2, 2021

Why is Russia's giant new space telescope underwater?


AFP News Agency shows that Russian scientists launch one of the world's biggest underwater space telescopes that will study the mysteries of the universe while floating in the so-called pristine waters of Lake Baikal.

Lake Baikal (Russian: озеро Байкал) is a rift lake located in southern Siberia, Russia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.

Lake Baikal is the largest freshwater lake by volume in the world, containing 22 to 23% of the world's fresh surface water. With 23,615.39 km3 (5,670 cu mi) of fresh water, it contains more water than all of the North American Great Lakes combined. With a maximum depth of 1,642 m (5,387 ft), Baikal is the world's deepest lake. It is among the world's clearest lakes and is the world's oldest lake, at 25-30 million years old. It is certainly the 7th-largest lake in the world by surface area.

Russian scientists have deployed a giant telescope into the frigid depths of Lake Baikal in southern Siberia to search for the tiniest known particles in the universe. The telescope, Baikal-GVD, is designed to search for neutrinos, which are nearly massless subatomic particles with no electrical charge. Neutrinos seem to be everywhere, but they interact so weakly with the forces around them that they are very hard to detect.

A neutrino is a certain subatomic particle that is very similar to an electron, but has no electrical charge and a very small mass, which might even be "zero." Neutrinos are one of the most abundant particles in the universe. Because they have very little interaction with matter, however, they seem to be incredibly difficult to detect.

Scientists are looking under Lake Baikal (1,700 meters deep). This lake is certainly the deepest lake on Earth. Neutrino detectors are typically built underground to shield them from so-called cosmic rays and other sources of interference.

The Baikal Gigaton Volume Detector (Baikal-GVD) deep underwater neutrino telescope being lowered beneath Lake Baikal in southern Siberia.

The scientists deployed the neutrino detector through the ice about 2.5 miles (4 kilometers) from the lakeshore in the southern part of the lake on March 13, lowering modules made of string, glass spheres and stainless steel up to 4,300 feet (1,310 m) into the water.

This telescope is unusual. Most of the telescopes used by astronomers are known as ground-based, this means that they are located here on Earth at some of the best observing sites in the world. When a telescope is placed on the ground it has to look up through the Earth's atmosphere to see into space, and the atmosphere can really blur images.

A telescope is usually an optical instrument using lenses, curved mirrors, or a combination of both to observe distant objects, or various devices used to observe distant objects by their emission, absorption, or reflection of electromagnetic radiation. The first known practical telescopes were refracting telescopes invented in the Netherlands at the beginning of the 17th century, by using glass lenses. They were used for both terrestrial applications and astronomy.

Russia and China want to build a space station on the moon


WION shows that the "space race" for space dominance is heating up. Russia and China certainly want to build a lunar space station. NASA wants another space station to orbit the moon. India has its own plans for a space station. Space might have borders in the future.

A so-called lunar outpost is a concept of a permanent or semi-permanent presence of humans on the Moon (a moonbase). Certain space companies want an increase in their budgets in order to make another crewed mission to the Moon. A sustained presence on the Moon is also possible in the future.

The concept of establishing a long-term human presence on the Moon can be traced back to the late 1950s. Plans are out there such as constructing an underground Air Force Base on the Moon, other military bases on the Moon, designs of lunar outposts and lunar rovers for long-duration treks across the Moon's surface.

The Artemis program is from 2017 to Present. The Artemis program is a planned crewed spaceflight program carried out predominately by NASA, USA commercial spaceflight companies, and international partners such as the European Space Agency (ESA), JAXA, and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) with the goal of landing "the first woman and the next man" on the Moon, specifically at the lunar south pole region by 2024. NASA sees Artemis as the next step towards the long-term goal of establishing a sustainable presence on the Moon, laying the foundation for private companies to build a lunar economy, and eventually successfuly sending humans to Mars. One primary target is Shackleton crater. In 2028 NASA plans on launching the Lunar Surface Asset, a small habitat to the surface of the Moon on either an SLS Block 1B or through an Artemis Support Mission on a commercial launcher. This would be certainly the first so-called crewed lunar base.

"Colonization of the Moon" could happen in the future. This is a concept employed by some proposals of establishing permanent human settlement or robotic presence on the Moon (the closest astronomical body to Earth) and the Earth's only so-called natural satellite. Other terms can also be used, such as: "space settlement" or "space habitation."

The Moon is highly likely to be the first permanent human space colony or settlement, because it is very close to the Earth.

Certain water exists on the Moon - "Lunar water." This so-called water was first discovered by India's ISRO Chandrayaan-1 mission in 2008. Diffuse water molecules can persist at the Moon's sunlit surface, as successfully discovered by NASA's SOFIA observatory in 2020. Gradually water vapor is decomposed by sunlight, leaving hydrogen and oxygen lost to outer space. Scientists have found water ice in the cold, permanently shadowed craters at the Moon's poles. It seems that water molecules are also in the extremely thin lunar atmosphere.

The chemistry of water is interesting. Water is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a solvent). Water is vital for all known forms of life, even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, connected by covalent bonds. Two hydrogen atoms are attached to one oxygen atom at an angle of 104.45°.

Water (H2O), and the chemically related hydroxyl group (-OH), exist in forms chemically bound as hydrates and hydroxides to lunar minerals (rather than free water), and evidence strongly suggests that this is the case in low concentrations as for much of the Moon's surface. In fact, of surface matter, adsorbed water is calculated to exist at trace concentrations of 10 to 1000 parts per million. Inconclusive evidence of free water ice at the lunar poles had accumulated during the second half of the 20th century from a variety of observations suggesting the presence of bound hydrogen.

Keep in mind, if research or evidence is inconclusive, it has not really proved anything. But, it can suggest something.

On 18 August 1976, the Soviet Luna 24 probe landed at Mare Crisium, took samples from the depths of 118, 143, and 184 cm of the lunar regolith, and then took them to Earth. In February 1978, it was published that laboratory analysis of these samples shown they contained 0.1% water by mass. Spectral measurements shown minima near 3, 5, and 6 µm, distinctive valence-vibration bands for water molecules, with intensities 2 or 3 times larger than the noise level.

On 24 September 2009, it was reported that the NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectrometer onboard India's ISRO Chandrayaan-1 probe had detected absorption features near 2.8-3.0 μm on the surface of the Moon. On 14 November 2008, India made the Moon Impact Probe onboard Chandrayaan-1 orbiter crash into Shackleton crater and confirmed the presence of water ice. For silicate bodies, such features are typically attributed to hydroxyl- and/or water-bearing materials. In August 2018, NASA confirmed that M3 showed water ice is present on the surface at the Moon poles. Water was confirmed to be on the sunlit surface of the Moon by NASA on October 26, 2020.

The search for the presence of lunar water continues. Lunar missions continue to be made to the Moon. The water's usefulness could possibly help in long-term lunar habitation.

Friday, March 26, 2021

Story of our Universe in 1 minute - Science Loop



The time-lapse of the entire universe is pretty interesting. "How did it begin" is an interesting question. "How vast is our universe" is also puzzling. The Story of our Great Universe is here in 1 minute. The visuals are pretty exciting.

See the extreme Timelapse of the evolution of Universe. The video compressed the Entire Timeline Of universe (13.8 B Years ) in a Minute scale. From the Big-Bang to Present. Primordial clouds to Our Sun. Supernova Explosion and formation of the Black-hole. Collision to exciting Formation. And the  Rise of life. The visual images put together are pretty exciting in : Time-Lapse of the Entire Universe. This video is: Extream Animation, VFX, SFX. Use Headphones for a really better Experience.

How did the universe start? There are theories out there. The Big Bang theory is a cosmological model of the observable universe from the so-called earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. The model describes how the universe expanded from an initial state of high density and temperature, and offers a comprehensive interesting deep explanation for a broad range of observed phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, and large-scale structure.

Crucially, the theory is compatible with Hubble-Lemaître law - the certain observation that the farther away galaxies are, the faster they are moving away from Earth. Extrapolating this cosmic expansion backwards in time using the known laws of physics, the theory describes a high density state preceded by a singularity in which space and time lose meaning. There is certainly no evidence of any phenomena prior to the singularity. Detailed measurements of the so-called expansion rate of the universe place the Big Bang at around 13.8 billion years ago, which is thus considered the age of the universe.

Saturday, March 6, 2021

First Space Hurricane Discovered : Science Loop


This is pretty interesting - the first-ever (first ever that was observed by humans) 'space hurricane' was detected over the North Pole. For the first time, astronomers have detected a powerful, 600-mile-wide (1,000 kilometers) hurricane of plasma in Earth's upper atmosphere - a phenomenon they're calling a "space hurricane." The space hurricane certainly raged for nearly 8 hours on Aug. 20, 2014. This fascinating phenomenon behaved similarly to the wind-based hurricanes we find on Earth, but this space version rained electrons instead of water. It seems that any planet with plasma and a magnetic field could have these 'violent' space storms, researchers said.

The hurricane seems to be formed from a tangled mess of magnetic field lines and fast-flying solar wind. The hurricane was invisible to the naked eye. However, 4 weather satellites that passed over the North Pole detected a formation not unlike a typical terrestrial hurricane. The intense space hurricane was shaped like a funnel with a quiet "eye" at the center. It was surrounded by several counterclockwise-spinning spiral arms of plasma (ionized gas found all over the solar system, including in Earth's atmosphere).

Usually, the "eye of the storm" is a region of mostly calm weather at the center of tropical cyclones. The eye of a storm is a roughly circular area, typically 30-65 kilometers in diameter. It is surrounded by the eyewall, a ring of towering massive thunderstorms where the most severe weather and highest winds certainly occur.

Until this important space discovery, it was uncertain if space plasma hurricanes existed. The existence was proved with this striking observation. These space hurricanes must be created by unusually large and fast transfer of solar wind energy and charged particles into the Earth's upper atmosphere.

Plasma and magnetic fields in the atmosphere of planets certainly exist throughout the universe, so the findings suggest space hurricanes should be a widespread phenomena.

This science phenomenon was discovered by a team of researchers from Shandong University in China. They had observed the storm over the Arctic region on 20 August 2014, before identifying its nature in 2021. The research team also consisted of scientists from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Norway. The team observed the space hurricane for 8 hours, before it gradually broke down. The storm was observed during a certain period of low solar and geomagnetic activity.

Friday, February 12, 2021

The New Space Race - China, Russia, and the US


The Weichert Report is really pretty interesting about the Space Explorations of China, Russia and the USA. Take a look at how Brandon J. Weichert joined The Epoch Times' Cross Roads w/ Joshua Phillips to discuss the future of space and the new exciting space race that's going on between China and the United States, but also with Russia.

If you want, you could purchase your copy of WINNING SPACE: HOW AMERICA REMAINS A SUPERPOWER (Republic Book Publishers) and definitely follow Brandon on various social media. You could also check out the popular blog: www.weichertreport.com.

For now, it seems that only 3 nations (Soviet Union/Russia, USA, China) have launched their own crewed spacecraft, with the Soviets/Russians and the American programs providing rides to other nations' astronauts. 27 "first flights" occurred on important Soviet or Russian flights while the United States carried 13.

Certain countries have gone to the so-called moon. The United States, the Soviet Union and China are the three nations which have successfully landed their spacecraft on the moon. And, the US is the only country to have ever put people on the moon. Russia (the USSR), Japan, China, the European Space Agency (ESA), and India have all made visits to the moon via probes.

242 individuals from 19 countries have visited the International Space Station. 242 individuals from 19 countries have visited the International Space Station.

A total of 18 people have unfortunately lost their lives either while in space or in preparation for a space mission, in four separate incidents. Given the serious risks involved in space flight, this number is surprisingly low. The two worst disasters both involved NASA's space shuttle.

People can't actually breathe in outer space. However, inside the International Space Station (ISS), the American astronauts and Russian cosmonauts do breathe air almost identical to the stuff we usually successfully breathe here on planet Earth - same pressure and about 80 per cent nitrogen and 20 per cent oxygen. The space workers really get it by 'splitting' H2O with electricity.

Some might think that NASA won the space race. By landing on the moon, the United States "won" the space race that had begun with Sputnik's launch in 1957. In 1975, the joint Apollo-Soyuz mission sent three U.S. astronauts into outer space aboard an Apollo spacecraft that docked in orbit with a Soviet-made Soyuz vehicle.

NASA's earliest objective was to launch a manned vehicle into Earth's orbit as soon as possible. It would be the Soviets, however, who would successfully win the race to put a man in space. In April 1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man to enter Earth's orbit, in a single-pilot important spacecraft called Vostok I.

Sunday, January 31, 2021

Astronomers Just Saw the Biggest Boom Since the Big Bang


BRIGHT SIDE on Youtube discusses the Big Bang Theory. There are more recent discoveries concerning this fantastic space phenomenon.

There was an epic huge space explosion that scientists discovered in February 2020. Its size and power are certainly enormous even by cosmic standards. It would take 2.6 billion years to get to where this explosion occurred in space. Amazingly, this burst certainly lasted 100 million years. That’s from today’s modern world to back all the way back to dinosaur times.

It seems that a black hole set off this space boom of epic proportions. This monster swallowed so much substance that it choked and shot out a bunch of plasma beams. They cut through space and formed a cosmic wasteland all around the site! It was thought to be the largest biggest explosion in the universe. But sooner or later, it seems, every record gets broken! See the most incredible, awe-inspiring, and unbelievable facts about space. You will be educated and entertained.

The history of the "The Big Bang theory" is interesting. The Big Bang theory is a cosmological model of the observable universe from the earliest known certain periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. The model describes how the universe expanded from an initial state of extremely high density and high hot temperature, and offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of observed phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, and large-scale structure.

Crucially, the theory is compatible with Hubble-Lemaître law - the observation that the farther away galaxies are, the faster they are moving away from Earth. Extrapolating this cosmic expansion backwards in time using the known laws of physics, the theory describes a high density state preceded by a singularity in which space and time lose meaning. There is no evidence of any phenomena prior to the singularity. Detailed measurements of the certain expansion rate of the universe place the Big Bang at around 13.8 billion years ago, which is thus considered the age of the universe.

After its initial expansion, the universe cooled sufficiently to allow the formation of subatomic particles, and later atoms. Giant clouds of these primordial elements (mostly hydrogen, with some helium and lithium) later coalesced through gravity, forming early stars and galaxies, the descendants of which are visible today. Besides these primordial building materials, astronomers observe the gravitational effects of an unknown dark matter surrounding galaxies. Most of the gravitational potential in the universe seems to be in this form, and the Big Bang theory and various observations indicate that this gravitational potential is not made of baryonic matter, such as normal atoms. Measurements of the redshifts of supernovae indicate that the certain expansion of the universe is accelerating, an observation attributed to dark energy's existence.

What is "Baryonic Matter"? In astronomy and cosmology, baryonic dark matter is dark matter composed of baryons. Only a small proportion of the dark matter in the universe is likely to be baryonic.

In particle physics, a baryon is a type of composite subatomic particle which contains an odd number of valence quarks. Baryons belong to the hadron family of particles; hadrons are composed of quarks. Baryons are also classified as fermions because they have half-integer spin.

Saturday, January 23, 2021

15 Unsettling Sky Phenomena Hard To Explain


You will definitely enjoy looking through these - 15 Unsettling Sky Phenomena Hard To Explain. You could see the most bizarre things in the high clouds and sky that you have never seen before. They are something very out of the ordinary. You can't even describe these things. See stories of witnesses of these 15 Unsettling Sky Phenomena Hard to Explain.

The sky (also sometimes called celestial dome) is everything that lies above the surface of the Earth, including the atmosphere and outer space.

In the field of astronomy, the sky is also called the celestial sphere. This is an abstract sphere (concentric to the Earth) on which the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars appear to be drifting. The celestial sphere is conventionally divided into certain designated areas called constellations.

The daytime sky usually appears blue because air molecules scatter shorter wavelengths of sunlight more than longer ones (redder light). The night sky appears to be a mostly dark surface or region with stars.

Some of the common natural phenomena seen in the sky are clouds, rainbows, and aurorae. Lightning and precipitation are also often visible in the sky.

Some people might be wondering: what is a so-called black hole? A black hole is certainly a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing (no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light) can really escape from it. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a certain black hole.

How Small a Black Hole can Get? Quantum Mechanical Black Hole


Here's another new fascinating science video (from Science Loop on Youtube): How Small a Black Hole can Get? Quantum Mechanical Black Hole.

Take a look at amazing explanations of the so-called Smallest Black Hole that can possible. These kinds of Black Holes are very tiny. You could even hold them in your hand.

The black holes are the natural consequences of Einstein's general theory of Relativity. In general, we thought that black holes are so huge and so massive because they are formed when the core of the larger star collapses into its own gravity, but technically they can be formed when enough amount of matter is packed into a very small place.

These black holes are extremely tiny and very light - these are Quantum Mechanical Black holes or mini black holes or micro black holes.

These fascinating black holes can be found at The Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and highest-energy particle collider and the largest machine in the world. It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) between 1998 and 2008 in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and hundreds of universities and laboratories. The collaboration included more than 100 countries. The machine lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference and as deep as 175 metres (574 ft) beneath the France-Switzerland border near Geneva.

First collisions were achieved in 2010 at an energy of 3.5 teraelectronvolts (TeV) per beam, about 4 times the previous world record. After certain upgrades, it reached 6.5 TeV per beam (13 TeV total collision energy, the present world record). At the end of 2018, it entered a 2-year shutdown period for further upgrades.

The amazing LHC primarily collides proton beams, but it can also use beams of heavy ions: lead-lead collisions and proton-lead collisions are typically done for one month per year. The aim of the LHC's detectors is to allow physicists to test the predictions of different theories of particle physics, certainly including measuring the properties of the Higgs boson and searching for the interesting large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetric theories, as well as other unsolved questions of physics.

What is supersymmetry? In particle physics, supersymmetry (SUSY) is really a conjectured relationship between two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin. A type of spacetime symmetry, supersymmetry is a possible candidate for undiscovered particle physics, and seen by certain physicists as an elegant solution to many current problems in particle physics if confirmed correct, which could resolve various areas where current theories are believed to be incomplete. A supersymmetrical extension to the Standard Model could resolve major hierarchy problems within gauge theory, by guaranteeing that quadratic divergences of all orders will cancel out in perturbation theory.

A black hole is a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing (no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light) can escape from it. The interesting theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a so-called black hole.


Above: A Black Hole


Above: The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is amazing. Go here to get more information about it: https://home.cern/science/accelerators/large-hadron-collider